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Table 5 Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products: Composition and Structure

From: Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

Source Category Features MW Monosaccharide composition Reference
Agaricus subrufescens (A. blazei) Extract β-1,6-D-glucan 10,000 NA [66]
Agaricus subrufescens (fruit body) Extract α-1,6- and α-1,4 glucans with β-1,6-glucopyranosyl backbone (629.2 mcg/mg polysaccharides, 43.5 mcg/mg protein) 170,000 glucose [24]
   α-1,4 glucans & β-1,6 glucans with β-1,3 side branches; α-1,6 glucans; β-1,6; 1-3 glucans, β-1,4 glucans; β-1,3 glucans; β-1,6; α-1,3 glucans; riboglucans, galactoglucomannans, β-1,2; β-1,3 glucomannans NA glucose, mannose, galactose, ribose [25, 117, 118]
Agaricus subrufescens (mycelia) Extract (ATOM) β-1,6-D-glucan, protein complex, 5% protein 100,000-1,000,000 glucose, mannose, galactose, ribose [93]
Aloe barbadensis (leaf gel) Whole tissue Dry weight: 10% polysaccharides; acemannan, aloemannan, aloeride, pectic acid, galactans, arabinans, glucomannans average 2,000,000 mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose [119, 120]
  Extract (aloemannan) neutral partially acetylated glucomannan, mainly β-1,4-mannans >200,000 mannose, glucose [121]
  Extract (aloeride) NA 4,000,000-7,000,000 37% glucose, 23.9% galactose, 19.5% mannose, 10.3% arabinose [122]
  Extract (acemannan) β-1,4 acetylated mannan 80,000 mannose [123]
Aloe barbadensis, (leaf gel), Larix sp. (bark), Anogeissus latifolia (bark), Astragalus gummifer (stem), Oryza sativa (seed), glucosamine Extracts (Ambrotose® powder) β-1,4 acetylated mannan, arabinogalactans, polysaccharide gums, rice starch, 5.4% protein 57.3% ≥ 950,000; 26.4% < 950,000 and ≥80,000; 16.3% ≤ 10,000 mannose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, xylose, fructose, fucose, glucosamine, galacturonic acid (unpublished data, Mannatech Incorporated)
Aloe barbadensis (leaf gel), Larix sp. (bark), Undaria pinnatifida (frond), Anogeissus latifolia (bark), Astragalus gummifer (stem), Oryza sativa (seed), glucosamine Extracts (Advanced Ambrotose® powder) β-1,4 acetylated mannan, arabinogalactans, polysaccharide gums, fucoidans, rice starch, 6% protein, 1% fatty acids 13% = 1,686,667; 46% = 960,000 30% <950,000 and ≥70,000; 11% ≤ 10,000   
Avena spp. (seed endosperm) Extract β-1,3;1,4 particulate (1-3 μ) glucans 1,100,000 glucose [43]
Avena spp. (seed) Extract β-1,4,1,3 particulate glucans (linear chains of β-D-glycopyranosyl units; 70% β 1-4 linked) 2,000,000 NA [41, 124]
Buplerum falcatum (root) Extract (bupleuran 2IIc) 6 linked galactosyl chains with terminal glucuronic acid substituted to β-galactosyl chains NA galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose [35]
Citrus spp. (fruit) Extract α-1,4-linked partially esterified D-anhydrogalacturonic acid units interrupted periodically with 1,2-rhamnose 70,000-100,000 galactose, galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, xylose, rhamnose [125]
Cladosiphon okamuranus (frond) Extract α-1,3-fucopyranose sulfate 56,000 fucose:glucuronic acid (6.1:1.0) [126]
Cordyceps sinensis (mycelia) Extract β-1,3-D-glucan with 1,6-branched chains NA NA [127]
Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (seed) Extract (guar gum) Main chain of β-1,4-mannopyranosyl units with α-galactopyranosyl units 220,000 mannose, galactose [36, 128]
  Extract (partially-hydrolyzed guar gum) NA 20,000 mannose, galactose [50]
Flammulina velutipes Extract NA NA glucose, mannose, galactose [117]
Flammulina velutipes (fruit body) Extract β-1,3 glucan NA glucose [129]
Ganoderma lucidum Whole tissue Linear β-1,3-glucans with varying degrees of
D-glucopyranosyl branching, β-glucan/protein complexes, heteropolysaccharides
400,000-1,000,000 glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, uronic acid [130]
  Extract NA 7,000-9,000 NA [67]
Ganoderma lucidum (fruit body) Extract NA 7,000-9,000 NA  
   β-linked heteroglycan peptide 513,000 fructose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose (3.167:
0.556:6.89:0.549:3.61)
[15]
Ganoderma tsugae Extract 55.6% carbohydrates (12.5% polysaccharides); 12% triterpenes, 1.7% sodium, 0.28% protein, 0% lipid NA NA [53]
Ginkgo biloba (seed) Extract 89.7% polysaccharides NA glucose, fructose, galactose, rhamnose [131]
Grifola frondosa Whole tissue β-1,3; 1, 6-glucans, α-glucans, mannoxyloglucans, xyloglucans, mannogalactofucans NA glucose, fucose, xylose, mannose, galactose [117]
Grifola frondosa (fruit body) Extract
(D fraction)
β-1,6-glucan with β-1,3 branches, 30% protein NA glucose [132]
  Extract
(X fraction)
β-1,6-D-glucan with α-1,4 branches, 35% protein 550,000-558,000 glucose  
Hordeum spp. (seed) Extract β-1,3;1,4-and β-1,3;1,6-D-glucans 45,000-404,000 glucose [75]
   Primarily linear β-1,3;1,4- glucans NA glucose [124]
Laminaria spp.
(frond)
Extract (laminarin) β-1,3;1-6 glucan 7,700 glucose [29]
   β-1,3 glucan with some β-1,6 branches and a small amount of protein 4,500-5,500 glucose [44]
  Extract Fucoidan NA NA [133]
Larix occidentalis (bark) Extract β-1,3;1,6-D-galactans with arabinofuranosyl and arabinopyranosyl side chains 19,000-40,000 galactose:arabinose (6:1), uronic acid [128, 134]
Lentinula edodes Extract (SME) β-1,3-glucans (4-5%), α-1,4-glucan (8-10%), protein (11-14%) NA glucose [80]
  Extract β-glucan 1,000 glucose [27]
  Whole tissue Linear β-1,3-glucans, β-1,4;1,6-glucans, heterogalactan NA glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, xylose [135]
  Extract (lentinan) β-1,3-glucan with 2 β-1,6 glucopyranoside branchings for every 5 β-1,3-glucopyranoside linear linkages 500,000 glucose [136]
Lentinula edodes (fruit body)
Lentinula edodes
Extract (lentinan) Neutral β-1,3-D glucan with two β-1,6 glucoside branches for every five β-1,3 units 400,000-800,000 glucose [137]
  Extract
(KS-2)
Peptide units and mannan connected by α-glycosidic bonds 60,000-90,000 mannose, glucose  
Lentinula edodes (mycelia or fruit body) Extract Triple helical β-1,3-D glucan with β-1,6 glucoside branches 1,000,000 glucose [3]
Lentinula edodes (mycelia) Extract
(LEM)
44% sugars, 24.6% protein ~1,000,000 xylose, arabinose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose [3]
  Extract (PG101) 72.4% polysaccharides, 26.2% protein, 1.4% hexosamine NA 55.6% glucose, 25.9% galactose, 18.5% mannose [138]
Lycium barbarum Whole tissue α-1,4;1,6-D-glucans, lentinan, β-1,3;1,6 heteroglucans, heterogalactans, heteromannans, xyloglucans NA glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose [139]
Lycium barbarum (fruit body) Extract
(LBP3p)
88.36% sugars, 7.63% protein 157,000 galactose, glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, xylose (molar ratio of 1:2.12:1.25:1.10:1.95:1.76) [91]
Panax quinquefolium (root) Extract Poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl saccharides NA arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid [33]
   NA NA glucose, mannose, xylose [140]
  Extract
(Cold-fX®)
90% poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides NA furanose [20]
Phellinus linteus (fruit body) Extract α- and β-linked 1,3 acidic proteoglycan with 1,6 branches 150,000 glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose [141]
Phellinus linteus (mycelia) Extract 83.2% polysaccharide (4.4% β-glucan), 6.4% protein, 0.1% fat NA glucose [142]
Pholiota nameko (fruit body) Extract (PNPS-1) NA 114,000 mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose (molar ratio of 1:8.4:13.6:29.6:6.2) [55]
Pleurotus ostreatus (mycelia) Extract β-1,3;1,6-D-glucans 316,260 glucose [143]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Extract (WGP) Particulate β-1,3;1,6-D-glucan NA glucose [144]
  Extract β-glucans with β-1,6 branches with a β-1,3 regions NA glucose [124]
  Extract
(SBG)
soluble β-1,3-D-glucan with β-1,3 side chains attached with β-1,6 linkages 20,000 glucose [145]
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (mycelia) Extract
(SSG)
β-1,3-D-glucan, <1% protein (>98% polysaccharide) NA glucose [83]
Sclerotium rofsii Extract (scleroglucan) β-1,3;1,6 glucan 1,000,000 glucose [29]
Trametes versicolor (fruit body) Extract
(PSP)
α-1,4, β-1,3 glucans, 10% peptides 100,000 glucose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose [146]
Trametes versicolor (mycelia) Extract
(PSK)
β-1,4;1,3;1,6-D-glucans, protein 94,000 glucose (74.6%), mannose (15.5%), xylose (4.8%), galactose (2.7%), fucose (2.4%) [137, 147]
Undaria pinnatifida (sporophyll) Extract Galactofucan sulfate 9,000 fucose:galactose 1.0:1.1 [148]
   Galactofucan sulfate 63,000 fucose:galactose:gluc-uronic acid (1.0:1.0:0.04) [149]
   β-1,3-galactofucan sulphate 38,000 fucose, galactose [150]
Unidentified source Extract (modified citrus pectin) NA 10,000 galactose, rhamnose, uronic acid [125]
  Extract (highly methoxylated pectin) NA 200,000 NA [36]