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Table 4 Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products: Oral Human Studies

From: Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

Extract Source Study design Population N (experimental/control) Dose/day Dura-tion Significant effects Reference
Arabino-galactans Larix occidentalis Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Healthy adults 8/15 4 g 6 weeks ↑ % CD8+ lymphocytes & blood lymphocyte proliferation [18]
Arabino-galactans (ResistAid™)    Healthy adults given pneumococcal vaccinations day 30 21/24 4.5 g 72 days ↑ plasma IgG subtypes [19]
Fucoidans Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Healthy adults 25 (75% fucoidan, 6 (10% fucoidan)/6 3 g 12 days 75% fucoidan: ↓ #s blood leukocytes, lymphocytes' ↑ plasma stromal derived factor-1, IFN-γ, CD34+ cells; ↑ % CXCR4-expressing CD34+ cells [21]
Furanose extract (Cold-FX®) Panax quinque-folium Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Healthy older adults given influenza immunization at the end of week 4 22/21 400 mg 4 months During weeks 9-16, ↓ incidence of acute respiratory illness, symptom duration [20]
Glucans Agaricus subru-fescens Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Cervical, ovarian or endometrial cancer patients receiving 3 chemotherapy cycles 39/61 5.4 g (estimated) 6 weeks ↑ NK cell activity, ↓ chemotherapy side effects [64]
Glucans
(β-1,3;1,6)
Not identified Placebo-controlled Recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients 31/42 20 mg 20 days ↑ PBL lymphocyte proliferation,↓ Ulcer Severity Scores [48]
Glucans
(β-1,3;1-6)
S. cerevisiae Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis 12/12 20 mg 12 weeks 30 minutes after nasal allergen provocation test, nasal lavage fluid: ↓ IL-4, IL-5, % eosinophils, ↑ IL-12 [47]
Glucans (PSK) Trametes versicolor Randomized, controlled Patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy 221/227 200 mg 3-5 years ↑ disease-free survival and overall survival [56]
   Controlled Post-surgical colon cancer patients receiving chemotherapy 123/121 3 g for 4 weeks, alternating with 10 4-week courses of chemo-therapy 7 years ↑ survival from cancer deaths; no difference in disease-free or overall survival [57]
    Post-surgical colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy 137/68 3 g daily 2 years ↑survival in stage III patients; ↓ recurrence in stage II & III patients [58]
    Post-surgical gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy 124/129 3 g for 4 weeks, alternating with 10 4-week courses of chemo-therapy 5-7 years ↑ 5-year disease-free survival rate, overall 5-year survival [59]
    Pre-surgical gastric or colorectal cancer patients 16 daily; 17 every other day/13 3 g daily or on alternate days before surgery <14 days or 14-36 days ≥14 day treatment: ↑ peripheral blood NK cell activity, PBL cytotoxicity, proportion of PBL helper cells; ↓ proportion of PBL inducer cells; <14 day treatment: ↑ PBL response to PSK and Con A, proportion of regional node lymphocyte suppressor cells [62]
   Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Post-surgical stage III-IV colorectal cancer patients 56/55 3 g for 2 months, 2 g for 22 months, 1 g thereafter 8-10 years ↑ remission & survival rates [61]
   Controlled Post-surgical stage III gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy 32/21 3 g 1 year ↑ survival time [60]
Glucans (PSP) Trametes versicolor Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Conventionally-treated stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer patients 34/34 3.06 g 1 month ↑ blood IgG & IgM, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, % body fat; ↓ patient withdrawal due to disease progression [63]