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Table 3 Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide-Rich Plant Powders: Oral Animal Studies

From: Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

Source Animal Oral dose/day Duration Treatment Significant effects Reference
Agaricus (A. blazei) subrufescens (fruit bodies) 6-week ♂ C57BL/6, C3H/HeJ and BALB/c mice (3/group) 16, 32 or 64 mg 2 weeks Healthy animals 32 and 64 mg ↑ liver mononuclear cell cytotoxicity [25]
Grifola frondosa 6-week ♀ ICR mice (10-15/group) 5% of diet 36 weeks Oral N-butyl-N'-butanolnitrosamine daily for first 8 weeks ↓ #s of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ peritoneal Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response & cytotoxic activity [70]
Laminaria angustata Weanling SD rats (58/group) 5% of diet 26 weeks IG DMBA, beginning of week 5 ↑ time to tumor development and ↓ # of adenocarcinomas in adenocarcinoma-bearing animals [77]
Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes 6-week ♀ ICR mice (10-17/group) 5% of diet 36 weeks Oral BBN daily for first 8 weeks ↓ # of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response, cytotoxic activity [70]
  7-8 -week ♂ Swiss mice (10/group) 1%, 5% or 10% of diet of 4 different lineages days 1-15 16 days Injected IP N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea day 15 All 3 doses of one lineage and the 5% dose of two other lineages ↓ #s of micronucleated bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes [79]
Lentinula edodes (fruit bodies) 5-week ♀ ICR mice
(14/group × 2)
10%, 20% or 30% of diet 25 days Injected IP Sarcoma-180 ascites All 3 doses ↓ Sarcoma-180 tumor weight [78]
  Mice: 1) CDF1; 2) C3H; 3) BALB/c; 4,5) C57BL/6N (9/group × 3) 20% of diet 25 days Injected SC 1) IMC carcinoma, 2) MM-46 carcinoma, 3) Meth-A fibrosarcoma, 4) B-16 melanoma, or 5) Lewis lung carcinoma cells ↓ growth of MM-46, B-16, Lewis lung, and IMC tumors; ↑ lifespan in Lewis lung and MM-46 animals  
  ICR mice (14/group × 2) 20% of diet days 1-7, days 7-31 or days 14-31 31 days Injected IP Sarcoma-180 ascites ↓ tumor weight & growth when fed days 7-31 or 14-31  
  Mice: 1) CDF1; 2) C3 H (5/group × 4) 20% of diet 7-12 days Injected SC: 1) IMC carcinoma or 2) MM-46 carcinoma cells ↑ spreading rate of activated Mø ↑ phagocytic activity  
Phellinus linteus 4-week ♂ ICR mice (10/group) 2 mg 1 month Healthy animals ↓ serum & splenocyte IgE production; ↑ proportion of splenic CD4+ T cells & splenocyte IFN-γ production [31]
Pleurotus ostreatus 6-week ♀ ICR mice
(10-20/group)
5% of diet 36 weeks Oral BBN daily for first 8 weeks ↓ #s of animals with bladder tumors; ↓ tumor weight; ↑ plasma Mø chemotactic activity, splenic lymphocyte blastogenic response, cytotoxic activity [70]