Skip to main content

Table 2 Immunomodulatory Non-Glucan Extracts: Oral Animal Studies

From: Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

Extract Source Animal Oral dose/day Duration Treatment Significant effects Reference
Fucoidans Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida 8-week ♀ BALB/c mice, 10/group 0.05% w/w of diet 56 days DSS-induced UC ↓ disease activity index and myeloperoxidase activity; ↓ # of B220-positive colonic B cells; ↓ colonic MLN IFN-γ and IL-6 and ↑ IL-10 and TGF-β; ↓ colonic IgG; ↓ colonic epithelial cell IL-6, TNF-α, and TLR4 mRNA expression [49]
  Undaria pinnatifida 5-week ♀ BALB/c mice (10-12/group) 5 mg, days 1-14 or 7-14 2 weeks Injected HSV into cornea day 7 ↓ facial herpetic lesions; ↑ survival, particularly in pre-treated animals [45]
    10 mg 1 week Administered
5-fluorouracil
↑ plasma NK cell activity  
      Injected SC HSV ↑ cytotoxic splenic T lymphocyte activity  
    0.1 or 0.5 mg 3 weeks Injected IP HSV Both doses ↑ serum neutralizing Ab titers, weeks 2 and 3  
   6-week ♂ ddY mice (5/group) 50, 100, 200 400 or
500 mg/kg
days 1-28
3 weeks Injected with Ehrlich carcinoma in back day 14 200-500 mg/kg ↓ tumor growth [116]
   6-week ♂ BALB/c mice (8/group) 40 mg/kg alternating days
7-19
19 days Injected IP Meth A fibrosarcoma day 1 ↓ tumor growth  
Furanose (COLD-FX®) Panax quinquefolium Weanling ♂ SD rats (10/group) 450 or
900 mg/kg in food
1 week Healthy animals Both doses ↑ spleen Il-2 and IFN-γ production following ConA or LPS stimulation; ↓ proportion of total MLN and Peyer's patch CD3+ cells & activated T cells; high dose ↑ spleen cell IL-1β production following 48 h ConA stimulation. [33]
Galacto-mannan (partially hydrolyzed guar gum) Cyamopsis tetragonolobus 10-week ♀ BALB/c mice,
11-15/group
5% of diet 3 weeks DSS-induced UC at beginning of
week 3
↓ disease activity index scores, ↓ colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity & lipid peroxidation; ↓ colonic TNF-α protein levels & mRNA expression up regulated by DSS exposure [50]
Galacto-mannans
(guar gum)
  8-month- SD rats, 5/group 5% of diet 3 weeks Older animals ↓ serum IgG; ↑ MLN lymphocyte IgA, IgM and IgG production [36]
Glucomannan (KS-2) Lentinula edodes DD1 mice (10-20/group) 140 mg/kg days
2-13
50 days Injected IP Ehrlich ascites tumor cells day 1 ↑ survival [84]
    0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg dose days 2-13 100 days Injected Sarcoma-180 tumor cells
day 1
1, 10, and 100 mg/kg doses ↑ survival  
Heteroglycan (ATOM) A. subrufescens Mice (10/group): 1) 5-week ♂ Swiss/NIH; 6 week- ♀ DS mice; 3) 8-week ♀ BALB/c nude; 4) 5-week C3H/HcN 100 or
300 mg/kg
days 2-11
8 weeks Implanted SC 1) Sarcoma-180, 2) Shionogi carcinoma 42, 3) Meth A fibrosarcoma, or 4) Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells Both doses ↓ Sarcoma-180 tumor size at 4 weeks & ↑ survival; 300 mg/kg ↑ peritoneal macrophage and C3-positive cells; 300 mg/kg ↓ Shionogi and Meth A tumor sizes at 4 weeks. Both doses ↑ survival of Ehrlich ascites mice [93]
Heteroglycan (LBP3p) Lycium barbarum ♂ Kunming mice (10/group) 5, 10 or
20 mg/kg
10 days Injected SC Sarcoma-180 cells 5 & 10 mg/kg ↑ thymus index; all doses ↓ weight, ↓ lipid peroxidation in serum, liver and spleen & ↑ spleen lymphocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T cell activity, IL-2 mRNA [91]
Heteroglycan (PNPS-1) Pholiota nameko SD rats (5/group) 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg days 1-8 8 days Implanted SC cotton pellets in scapular region
day 1
↓ granuloma growth positively correlated with dose: 11%, 18% and 44%, respectively [55]
Heteroglycan (PG101) Lentinus lepideus 8-10-week ♀ BALB/c mice (3/group) 10 mg 24 days 6 Gy gamma irradiation ↑ colony forming cells, granulocyte CFUs/Mø, erythroid burst-forming units, and myeloid progenitor cells in bone marrow; induced proliferation of granulocyte progenitor cells in bone marrow; ↑ serum levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-1β [92]
Mixed poly-saccharides (Ambrotose® or Advanced Ambrotose® powders) Aloe barbadensis, Larix spp, and other plant poly-saccharides ♂ SD rats (10/group) 37.7 or 377 mg/kg Ambrotose® powder or 57.4 or 574 mg/kg Advanced Ambrotose® powder 2 weeks 5% DSS in drinking water beginning day 6 574 mg/kg Advanced Ambrotose powder ↓ DAI scores; 377 mg/kg Ambrotose complex & both doses Advanced Ambrotose powder ↑ colon length and ↓ blood monocyte count [52]
Pectin Pyrus pyrifolia 6-8-week ♂ BALB/c mice (11/group) 100 μg
days 1-7
22 days Injected IP OVA day 7, provoked with OVA aerosol day 21 bronchial fluid:↓ IFN-γ & ↑ IL-5; splenic cells: ↑ IFN-γ, ↓ IL-5; normalized pulmonary histopathological changes; ↓ serum IgE [54]
Pectins (bupleurum 2IIc) Bupleurum falcatum 6-8-week ♀ specific-pathogen-free C3H/HeJ mice 250 mg/kg 1 week Healthy animals ↑ spleen cell proliferation [35]
Pectins (highly methoxylated) Malus spp. 8-month- SD rats (5/group) 5% of diet vs. cellulose control 3 weeks Older animals ↑ MLN lymphocyte IgA & IgG [36]
Pectins Citrus spp. 5-week ♀ F344 rats (30/group) 15% of diet 34 weeks Injected SC AOM once a week, weeks 4-14 ↓ colon tumor incidence [86]
  Malus spp. 5-week ♀ BALB/c mice (6/group) 5% of diet 2 weeks Healthy animals ↑ fecal IgA and MLN CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio & IL-2 & IFN-γ secretion by ConA-stimulated MLN lymphocytes [51]
   5-week ♀ BALB/c mice (6/group) 5% of diet days 5-19 vs. cellulose control 19 days DSS-induced UC days 1-5 Significantly increased MLN lymphocytes IgA, and significantly decreased IgE; significantly decreased ConA-stimulated IL-4 and IL-10  
   4-week ♂ Donryu rats (20-21/group) 20% of diet 32 weeks Injected SC AOM once a week,
weeks 2-12
↓ colon tumor incidence [85]
   4-week ♂ Donryu rats (19-20/group) 10 or 20% of diet 32 weeks Injected SC AOM once a week,
weeks 2-12
Both doses ↓ colon tumor incidence; 20% ↓ tumor occupied area & ↓ portal blood and distal colon PGE2 [90]
Pectins (modified) Citrus spp. 2-4-month BALB/c mice (9-10/group) 0.8 or 1.6 mg/ml drinking water,
days 8-20
20 days Injected SC with 2 × 2 mm section of human colon-25 tumor on day 1 Both doses ↓ tumor size [87]
   NCR nu/nu mice (10/group) 1% (w/v) drinking water 16 weeks Orthotopically injected human breast carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435) into mammary fat pad on day 7 ↓ tumor growth rate & volume at 7 weeks, lung metastases at 15 weeks, # of blood vessels/tumor at 33 days post-injection [89]
   NCR nu/nu mice (10/group) 1% (w/v) drinking water 7 weeks Injected human colon carcinoma cells (LSLiL6) into cecum on day 7 ↓ tumor weights and metastases to the lymph nodes and liver  
   SD rats (7-8/group) 0.01%, 0.1% or 1.0% wt/vol of drinking water, days 4-30 1 month Injected SC MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells 0.1% and 1.0% ↓ lung metastases; 1.0% ↓ lymph node disease incidence [88]
\