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Table 1 Changes on sputum smear AFB and radiograph after 2 and 6 months

From: Zinc and vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce sputum conversion time in severely malnourished pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Indonesia

Variables Groups
  Zinc Vitamin A Vitamin A + Zinc Placebo
Age (year), mean ± SD 30.9 ± 11.8 33.1 ± 11.5 30.1 ± 12 31.4 ± 10.4
Gender (n,%):     
   Male 51 (67.1) 46 (63.9) 42 (63.6) 50 (58.1)
   Female 25 (32.9) 26 (36.1) 24 (36.4) 36 (41.9)
Sputum smear grade (n,%):     
   + 1 18 (23.7) 22 (30.6) 25 (37.9) 24 (27.9)
   + 2 24 (31.6) 19 (26.4) 18 (27.3) 30 (34.9)
   + 3 34 (44.7) 31 (43) 23 (34.8) 32 (37.2)
Sputum conversion time (wk),mean ±SD 3.02 ± 2.2 2.1 ± 1.6 1.94 ± 1.4 2.5 ± 1.7
Duration to achieve WHO target(wk),mean † 6.6 4.0 4.0 5.0
Number of cavity (n,%)     
   0 month* 18 (25.7) 35 (51.5) 25 (38.5) 36 (41.9)
   2 month* 5 (7.5) 17 (27) 8 (14.8) 13 (17.1)
   6 month 5 (8.1) 3 (5.3) 2 (3.6) 3 (4.2)
Cavity surface area (cm2), median (IQR)     
   0 month 10.2 (4.9-17.4) 12.0 (6.2-22.1) 12.9 (4.8-15.9) 10.2 (4.9-21.6)
   2 month 6.2 (2.5-21)‡ 5.5 (2.5-13.7)‡ 5.9 (2-16.2)‡ 4 (3.1-10)‡
   6 month 0 (0 - 0)‡ 0 (0 - 0)‡ 0 (0- 0)‡ 0 (0 - 0)‡
Total lesion area (cm2), median (IQR)     
   0 month 120 (71-179.8) 139 (44-216) 143 (73-198) 129 (62-209)
   2 month 40.5 (12-100)‡ 35 (0-80)‡ 37 (9-94.5)‡ 32.5 (4.5-77.5)‡
   6 month 0 (0-42.4)‡ 0 (0-25.8)‡ 0 (0-21)‡ 0 (0-25.8)‡
  1. SD = standard deviation, IQR = interquartile range; *significant difference of proportion between groups (chi-squared, p < 0.05); significant changes from baseline p < 0.001‡; number of good quality sputum analyzed for zinc, vitamin A, zn + vitamin A and placebo groups were: 62, 57, 50, and 68 respectively (total 237). †WHO target: 85% subjects in a group converted into SS negative.