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Table 4 Food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire and two 24-hour dietary recalls and differences between both methods: mean and standard deviation (SD)

From: Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire for national health and nutrition monitoring

  Food intake (g/d)
   Food frequency questionnaire 24-hour dietary recalls Differences FFQ - 24-hour dietary recalls
Food group N Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD P *
Coffee 159 403.5 343.2 509.4 406.3 -105.8 313.3 < 0.001
Alcoholic beverages 155 126.8 183.8 174.6 277.4 -47.8 180.6 0.059
Tea 159 324.6 479.2 350.9 493.4 -26.3 374.2 0.161
Meat products 161 29.7 28.0 44.3 45.7 -14.6 43.3 < 0.001
Sweets 159 50.9 52.0 65.4 62.9 -14.5 63.2 0.008
Pasta, noodles 161 23.8 21.6 34.1 61.8 -10.3 58.2 0.896
Butter and margarine 161 8.3 9.4 17.7 17.8 -9.4 14.7 < 0.001
Sweet spreads 159 9.8 10.2 18.8 22.4 -8.9 18.7 < 0.001
Fast food 159 10.5 15.7 18.3 41.2 -7.9 38.1 0.626
Fish 161 16.9 19.0 21.5 49.9 -4.7 49.2 0.026
Breakfast cereals 161 3.6 7.2 7.2 19.9 -3.6 16.6 0.857
Processed fruits 160 6.6 11.9 10.1 32.0 -3.5 31.0 0.029
Pizza 160 14.6 19.4 16.9 62.5 -2.2 63.1 < 0.001
Salty snacks 161 4.6 9.0 6.2 15.4 -1.6 14.0 0.099
Bread 153 143.6 98.5 144.7 76.6 -1.1 94.8 0.401
Eggs 161 12.5 10.9 13.5 23.3 -0.9 23.5 0.419
Cream cheese 161 4.3 8.0 4.7 14.8 -0.4 13.0 0.002
Legumes 158 14.3 21.9 13.8 36.9 0.5 40.5 0.003
Meat 160 52.7 46.4 52.1 58.6 0.6 66.0 0.501
Cooked vegetables 158 54.6 51.5 50.9 51.7 3.7 68.7 0.474
Cheese 161 26.2 25.9 16.2 18.2 9.8 25.5 < 0.001
Rice 161 19.2 21.6 9.1 27.4 10.1 30.3 < 0.001
Potatoes 160 85.8 57.1 70.6 82.7 15.2 81.8 < 0.001
Raw vegetables 158 72.9 81.8 39.4 48.8 33.5 77.3 < 0.001
Curd cheese, soured milk, yoghurt 160 95.1 107.3 57.6 86.7 37.5 111.4 < 0.001
Non alcoholic beverages 149 357.8 473.0 288.2 378.4 69.6 394.3 0.003
Fresh fruits 161 247.7 81.8 174.9 174.2 72.8 280.0 < 0.001
Water 138 842.3 608.7 743.3 514.1 99.0 594.6 0.292
Milk 158 220.2 244.7 111.5 170.3 108.7 249.6 < 0.001
  1. * Sign rank test