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Table 2 Spearman rank correlation coefficients of food group intake between the food frequency questionnaire and two 24-hour dietary recalls

From: Relative validation of a food frequency questionnaire for national health and nutrition monitoring

   Sex Age group
  All participants Men Women 18- 34 years 35 - 50 years 51 - 64 years 65 - 80 years
Food group n = 161 n = 82 n = 79 n = 22 n = 57 n = 56 n = 26
Tea 0.80‡ 0.74‡ 0.76‡ 0.74‡ 0.79‡ 0.81‡ 0.83‡
Coffee 0.78‡ 0.69‡ 0.83‡ 0.75‡ 0.81‡ 0.71‡ 0.76‡
Butter and margarine 0.70‡ 0.67‡ 0.67‡ 0.80‡ 0.61‡ 0.66‡ 0.71‡
Sweet spreads 0.65‡ 0.66‡ 0.63‡ 0.26 0.62‡ 0.52‡ 0.69‡
Milk 0.63‡ 0.61‡ 0.64‡ -0.03§ 0.67‡ 0.70‡ 0.72‡
Breakfast cereals 0.62‡ 0.64‡ 0.60‡ 0.58† 0.57‡ 0.63‡ 0.75‡
Non alcoholic beverages 0.61‡ 0.62‡ 0.59‡ 0.70‡ 0.60‡ 0.64‡ 0.29
Alcoholic beverages 0.60‡ 0.65‡ 0.53‡ -0.07§ 0.52‡ 0.73‡ 0.87‡
Meat products 0.58‡ 0.45‡ 0.49‡ 0.62† 0.58‡ 0.51‡ 0.55†
Water 0.53‡ 0.54‡ 0.52‡ 0.38 0.44‡ 0.52‡ 0.66‡
Fresh fruits 0.51‡ 0.55‡ 0.46‡ 0.51* 0.54‡ 0.53‡ 0.38
Curd cheese, soured milk, yoghurt 0.49‡ 0.41‡ 0.48‡ 0.24 0.49‡ 0.47‡ 0.40*
Bread 0.46‡ 0.41‡ 0.40‡ 0.31 0.46‡ 0.43‡ 0.56*
Sweets 0.45‡ 0.45‡ 0.45‡ 0.30 0.32* 0.53‡ 0.63‡
Cream cheese 0.40‡ 0.32† 0.48‡ 0.41 0.46‡ 0.34† 0.37
Cheese 0.40‡ 0.40‡ 0.39‡ 0.38 0.52‡ 0.25 0.30
Fish 0.36‡ 0.38‡ 0.32† 0.22 0.42‡ 0.38† 0.22
Salty snacks 0.33‡ 0.33† 0.33† 0.62† 0.17 0.34† 0.33
Meat 0.29‡ 0.32† 0.21 0.13 0.13 0.28* 0.62‡
Raw vegetables 0.29‡ 0.23* 0.27* 0.18 0.43† 0.24 0.18
Processed fruits 0.27‡ 0.16 0.38‡ 0.17 0.18 0.35† 0.41*
Potatoes 0.27‡ 0.26* 0.26* 0.36 0.17 0.12 0.47*
Fast food 0.25‡ 0.16 0.36* 0.43* 0.40* 0.11 0.07
Legumes 0.22‡ 0.28* 0.09 0.26 0.22 0.22 0.19
Eggs 0.20† 0.28* 0.10 -0.23§ 0.33* 0.15 0.44*
Pasta 0.19* 0.27* 0.09 0.16 0.20 0.14 0.26
Rice 0.19* 0.18 0.20 -0.15§ 0.15 0.35† 0.11
Cooked vegetables 0.16 0.08 0.23* -0.16§ 0.26 0.21 0.00§
Pizza 0.15 -0.10§ 0.19 0.10 -0.05§ 0.07
  1. Significance level: * P < 0.05, †P < 0.01, ‡ P < 0.001
  2. § The correlation coefficient was negative or could not be calculated due to a high number of participants who did not consume the food on both recall days