Binding of U937 human monocytes to HAEC. HAEC monolayers were incubated overnight with 1% (v/v) DMSO alone (DMSO) or with mushroom powder (0.1 mg/mL) including shiitake (S), crimini (C), oyster (O), maitake (M), and white button (WB). Monolayers were washed then incubated with medium alone or containing IL-1β (5 ng/mL) for 6 h. After washing again to remove IL-1β, fluorescently labeled U937 cells were co-incubated with HAEC for 30 min at 37°C. HAEC monolayers and bound U937 cells were harvested and the total fluorescence was analyzed to determine monocyte binding. Data indicate mean relative fluorescent units (RFU) ± SEM and are resentative of 3-4 experiments each performed in triplicate. *p < 0.05 vs. control.