VCAM-1 adhesion molecule expression in HAEC. Monolayers were incubated overnight with 1% (v/v) DMSO alone (DMSO) or with mushroom powder (0.1 mg/mL) including shiitake (S), crimini (C), oyster (O), maitake (M), and white button (WB). Cell monolayers were washed then incubated with medium alone or IL-1β (5 ng/mL) for 6 h. After harvesting, VCAM-1 expression was determined by ELISA. Data indicate mean optical density (O.D.) ± SEM and are representative of 3-4 experiments each performed in quadruplicate. *p < 0.05 vs. control.