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Table 4 Changes in study endpoints from baseline to visit 4

From: A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F) for knee osteoarthritis: A randomised, placebo controlled pilot study

Measurement Placebo**
N = 14
Aquamin**
N = 8
Group differences*** P values*
WOMAC – pain 5.38(2.80) 10.83(8.30) 3.5(7.1) 0.63
WOMAC – stiffness 4.81(4.37) 10.42(12.67) 1.9(8.8) 0.83
WOMAC – activity 6.54(2.16) 14.72(9.04) 5.5(6.8) 0.43
WOMAC – composite 6.17(1.96) 13.55(8.98) 4.9(6.7) 0.47
ROM – PF 3.84(2.48) 6.67(3.57) 2.7(4.3) 0.54
ROM – AF 1.92(2.63) 8.33(4.22) 6.0(4.8) 0.23
ROM – PE -1.54(2.43) 0.83(1.54) 5.2(2.2) 0.028
ROM – AE -1.54(2.43) 0.83(1.54) 5.2(2.2) 0.028
6 MWD 12.5(31.5) 150(48) 136(57) 0.03
  1. * P value based on ANCOVA group effect. ** mean change (SE). ***mean group difference in change (SE) based on ANCOVA estimated marginal means