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Table 2 Study arm calcium intakes, phosphate doses, urine calcium and calcium balance

From: Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: A meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid-ash diet hypothesis

Study n Phosphate dose (mmol/day) Phosphate source Calcium Intake (mmol/day) Days on Calcium intake* Days on each balance study after adaption** Change uCalcium (mmol/day) Change Calcium balance (mmol/day)
Patton [21] 18 10 Na2HPO4 & Na glycerophosphate 9 7 7 -0.4 -0.2
Patton [21] 18 19 " 9 7 7 -1.0 0.6
Patton [21] 18 10 " 24 7 7 -0.4 -0.6
Patton [21] 18 19 " 24 7 7 -1.5 0.3
Patton [21] 18 10 " 39 7 7 -1.0 0.03
Patton [21] 18 19 " 39 7 7 -0.4 1.1
Malm [27] 4 24 H3PO4 - 98 7 -0.9 n/a
Malm [27] 2 32 H3PO4 11 98 28 -0.7 0.7
Malm [27] 4 26 H3PO4 20 98 28 -0.9 0.1
Malm [27] 2 19 H3PO4 13 56 56 -1 0.03
Goldsmith [28] 7(4) 32 K2H & KH2 21 7 4 -0.9 0.45
Bell [29] 5 37 Na PolyP 18 6 22 -1.7 n/a
Spencer [30] 10 37 Naglycerophosphate 5 0 22 -0.8 0.03
Spencer [30] 8 37 Naglycerophosphate 21 0 40 -1.7 0.70
Spencer [30] 3 39 Naglycerophosphate 36 0 34 -2.3 -0.35
Spencer [30] 6 36 Naglycerophosphate 50 0 31 -2.1 0.10
Hegsted [31] 8 49 KH+PO+ 13 0 12 -2.5 0.94
Zemel [32] 8 32 KH2PO4 10 2 11 -2.0 2.7
Zemel [32] 8 32 (NaPO3)6 10 2 11 -2.0 1.3
Schuette [33] 8 25 KH2PO4 15 2 6 -0.9 0.03
Spencer [34] 1 35 Naglycerophosphate 6 0 66 -3.2 0.5
Spencer [34] 4 34 Naglycerophosphate 20 0 42 -3.0 1.3
Spencer [34] 2 41 Naglycerophosphate 34 0 33 -3.6 0.00
Spencer [34] 3 40 Naglycerophosphate 51 0 40 -3.5 0.2
Whybro [36] 9 32 NaH2PO4 25 5 2 -1.1 n/a
Whybro [36] 11 48 Not stated 25 5 9 -2.4 n/a
Kemi [37] 14 8 Na2 Na3 HPO4 6 0 1 -0.2 n/a
Kemi [37] 14 24 Na2 Na3 HPO4 6 0 1 -0.5 n/a
Kemi [37] 14 48 Na2 Na3 HPO4 6 0 1 -0.5 n/a
Krapf [35] 6 9.6 IV PO4 vs Cl 35 4 3 -3.5 n/a
  1. * days on calcium intake prior to the measurement of outcomes
  2. ** the shortest number of days on the balance study is reported if it varied within the comparison interventions