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Table 1 Included studies in the meta-analysis of calcium balance from a change of phosphate intake

From: Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: A meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid-ash diet hypothesis

Study Year Subjects Age range (years) % female Study design Baseline
PO4 intake (mmol/day)
Ethics approval Food weighted Food lab analysis Usual Calcium intake
Patton [21] 1953 young women N/A (100%) RCO 25 N/A yes yes no
Malm [27] 1953 male prisoners 20-56 0 CO unclear N/A yes yes yes
Goldsmith [28] 1976 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis 63-75 7(100%) CO 40 N/A no no yes
Bell [29] 1977 young adults 24-36 3/8 (38%) CO 32 yes yes yes no
Spencer [30] 1978 adult men 38-65 0 CO 25 N/A yes yes no
Hegsted [31] 1981 adult males 19-25 0 CO 33 yes yes yes no
Zemel [32] 1981 young men 18-24 0 CO 27 yes yes yes no
Schuette [33] 1982 young men 19-26 0 CO 29 yes yes yes no
Spencer [34] 1986 adult males 48-71 0 CO 26 yes yes yes no
Whybro [36] 1998 healthy men 19-38 0 RCO 26 & 32 yes no no no
Kemi [37] 2006 young women 20-28 48(100%) RCO 16 yes no no no
Krapf [35] 1995 young men 22 0 CO 49 yes no no no