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Table 3 Glycemic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses to whey peptide (NOP-47) and placebo.

From: Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

Variables NOP-47 Placebo
Serum Glucose (mg/dL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 93.2 ± 6.5 96.6 ± 9.0
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 93.9 ± 7.6 93.6 ± 7.0
   15 min 93.7 ± 7.6 92.8 ± 6.0
   30 min 94.1 ± 7.11 92.5 ± 6.1
   45 min 93.5 ± 6.7 92.3 ± 5.8
   60 min 93.0 ± 6.5 92.6 ± 7.0
   90 min 93.7 ± 6.4 92.7 ± 6.6
   120 min 93.4 ± 6.9 91.2 ± 6.5
Serum FRAP (μmol/L of Trolox Equivalents)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 364 ± 93 385 ± 78
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 354 ± 82 347 ± 67
   15 min 370 ± 82 359 ± 76
   30 min* 375 ± 80 369 ± 86
   45 min 351 ± 78 366 ± 86
   60 min 364 ± 76 358 ± 72
   90 min 341 ± 73 359 ± 79
   120 min 349 ± 76 349 ± 69
Plasma MPO (pmol/L)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 397 ± 162 362 ± 116
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 374 ± 117 347 ± 123
   15 min 372 ± 118 361 ± 136
   30 min 382 ± 145 358 ± 126
   45 min 400 ± 132 366 ± 124
   60 min* 431 ± 136 390 ± 133
   90 min* 420 ± 125 394 ± 112
   120 min 392 ± 135 377 ± 115
Plasma CRP (mg/dL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 1.05 ± 0.88 1.75 ± 3.14
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 1.24 ± 1.51 1.11 ± 1.42
   15 min 1.33 ± 1.73 1.01 ± 1.23
   30 min 1.33 ± 1.77 1.14 ± 1.59
   45 min 1.29 ± 1.75 1.15 ± 1.61
   60 min 1.31 ± 1.77 1.08 ± 1.45
   90 min 1.31 ± 1.75 1.09 ± 1.46
   120 min 1.24 ± 1.65 1.02 ± 1.43
Plasma MDA (μmol/L)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 0.31 ± 0.13 0.37 ± 0.16
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 0.32 ± 0.13 0.31 ± 0.13
   15 min 0.31 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.12
   30 min 0.33 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.11
   45 min 0.34 ± 0.14 0.31 ± 0.12
   60 min 0.32 ± 0.12 0.30 ± 0.14
   90 min 0.32 ± 0.15 0.30 ± 0.15
   120 min 0.32 ± 0.16 0.30 ± 0.14
sE-selectin (ng/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 22.6 ± 7.4 20.7 ± 8.5
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 19.6 ± 7.3 19.2 ± 7.3
   60 min 20.0 ± 8.5 19.0 ± 7.6
   120 min 19.7 ± 8.7 20.4 ± 8.6
sICAM-1 (ng/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 104 ± 17 95 ± 25
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 100 ± 21 97 ± 13
   60 min 96 ± 16 94 ± 21
   120 min 96 ± 16 97 ± 17
sVCAM-1 (ng/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 756 ± 145 732 ± 125
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 712 ± 124 709 ± 143
   60 min 701 ± 112 700 ± 144
   120 min 710 ± 118 719 ± 186
IL-6 (pg/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 493 ± 1162 473 ± 1077
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 417 ± 1002 492 ± 1238
   60 min 563 ± 1441 504 ± 1266
   120 min 579 ± 1536 483 ± 1133
IL-8 (pg/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 158 ± 243 139 ± 213
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 105 ± 183 159 ± 288
   60 min 155 ± 323 164 ± 300
   120 min 187 ± 370 183 ± 331
MCP-1 (pg/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 435 ± 306 305 ± 132
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 428 ± 282 427 ± 244
   60 min 447 ± 322 423 ± 276
   120 min 398 ± 286 427 ± 316
TNF-alpha (pg/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 39 ± 70 43 ± 89
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 19 ± 35 41 ± 105
   60 min 39 ± 93 47 ± 120
   120 min 63 ± 193 54 ± 141
VEGF (pg/mL)   
   Pre (Pre-Supplementation) 1320 ± 1394 1189 ± 1328
   Pre-Ingestion (2 wk Post) 994 ± 1080 1206 ± 1435
   60 min 1096 ± 1278 1201 ± 1401
   120 min 1206 ± 1406 1273 ± 1548
  1. Values are mean ± SD. *Significant main time effect, P < 0.05 from Pre-Ingestion.
  2. FRAP = ferric-reducing ability of plasma; MPO = myeloperoxidase; CRP = C-reactive protein; MDA = malondialdehyde; sICAM-1 = soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1; sVAM-1 = soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; IL-6 = interleukin-6; MCP-1 = monocyte chemotactic protein-1; TNF-alpha = tumor necrosis factor alpha; VEGF = Vascular endothelial growth factor.