Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between food consumption and perceived stress and depressive symptoms (multivariable analysis adjusted for country and for all other variables in the table, separate models for males and females and for both mental health indicators)

From: Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries

  Perceived Stress score (PSS) Depressive Symptoms score (M-BDI)
  Female Male Female Male
Food group or subscale p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate*
Sweets/Cookies/Snacks/Fast food# 0.03 0.72 0.29 -0.46 0.15 0.96 0.30 -0.89
Fruits/Vegetables+ <0.01 -1.17 0.43 -0.40 <0.01 -2.37 0.94 -0.07
Soft drinks 0.83 -0.05 0.23 0.40 0.16 -0.64 0.64 0.29
Meat 0.11 -0.40 0.91 0.04 0.01 -1.38 0.34 -0.66
Fish 0.06 -0.69 0.83 -0.09 0.95 -0.05 0.71 0.31
Milk products 0.12 -0.44 0.49 -0.26 0.23 -0.72 0.22 -0.87
Cereal products 0.99 0.00 0.38 -0.28 0.61 -0.26 0.17 -0.79
  1. * Change in the corresponding score (PSS or M-BDI) per one unit of the food group frequency scale
  2. ** Sweets/cookies/Snacks/Fast food subscale: mean of four items (sweets, cakes/cookies, snacks, fast food)
  3. + Fruits/Vegetables subscale: mean of three items (fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables)