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Table 1 Food consumption and mental health indicators by country and gender

From: Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries

  DE PL BG
  Female Male Female Male Female Male
  N = 394 N = 302 N = 351 N = 138 N = 449 N = 205
Food Groupa Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
   Sweets 3.3 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 3.1 (0.9) 3.1 (0.8) 3.6 (0.9) 3.4 (0.9)
   Cakes/cookies 2.3 (0.6) 2.2 (0.6) 2.8 (0.8) 2.7 (0.8) 3.1 (0.9) 3.0 (0.9)
   Snacks 2.1 (0.7) 2.3 (0.7) 2.1 (0.8) 2.2 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 2.7 (0.8)
   Fast food 2.2 (0.6) 2.4 (0.6) 1.8 (0.7) 2.0 (0.8) 3.1 (1.0) 3.5 (0.9)
   Fresh fruits 3.5 (0.9) 3.2 (0.9) 3.3 (0.9) 3.0 (0.9) 3.6 (0.9) 3.3 (0.8)
   Salad 3.3 (0.8) 3.1 (0.8) 3.1 (0.8) 3.0 (0.8) 3.7 (0.9) 3.4 (0.8)
   Cooked vegetables 3.1 (0.8) 3.0 (0.8) 2.7 (0.9) 2.6 (0.9) 3.0 (0.9) 3.1 (0.9)
   Soft drinks 2.5 (1.1) 2.9 (1.0) 2.9 (1.1) 3.1 (0.9) 2.9 (1.2) 3.3 (1.1)
   Meat 3.0 (1.0) 3.6 (0.9) 3.3 (0.9) 3.6 (0.9) 3.1 (1.0) 3.7 (0.9)
   Fish 2.0 (0.7) 2.2 (0.8) 2.2 (0.7) 2.3 (0.7) 2.3 (0.7) 2.5 (0.8)
   Milk products 3.9 (0.9) 3.9 (0.9) 3.3 (1.0) 3.2 (1.0) 3.8 (0.8) 3.7 (0.9)
   Cereal/cereal products 3.9 (0.9) 3.6 (1.1) 3.6 (1.0) 3.5 (1.1) 3.5 (1.1) 3.8 (1.1)
Mental Health Indicators       
   M-BDIb 28.1 (15.6) 25.2 (14.7) 33.6 (17.4) 27.6 (15.2) 33.6 (15.4) 29.9 (13.6)
   PSSc 25.2 (8.1) 22.9 (8.0) 29.3 (7.5) 25.0 (6.9) 26.5 (7.8) 23.8 (7.3)
  1. a Mean of the consumption frequency scale from 1 = never to 5 = several times per day
  2. b Mean Modified Beck Depression Index, higher scores indicate stronger depressive symptoms
  3. c Mean Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen, higher scores indicate higher perceived stress