Schedules of postoperative nutrition. The infusion of 500 ml of 5% liquid glucose commenced within 12 h of surgery and enteral feeding was started on POD 2 in both groups. All patients in both groups reached the maximum volume of total caloric intake (derived using Harris-Benedict equation), on POD 4. In the EN group, the total volume of EN was 600 kcal/day on POD 2 and 1000 kcal/day on POD 3 with PPN. In the EN + PN group, EN started at 200 kcal/day and was increased every 2 days to a maximum volume of 600 kcal/day from POD 6. The patients received PPN until POD 3 or TPN from POD 4 to compensate for the caloric shortage. Oral intake started on POD 7. TPN was stopped when oral intake was over 500 kcal/day and enteral nutrition was stopped when oral intake was over 1000 kcal/day. EN: enteral nutrition, PPN: peripheral parenteral nutrition, TPN: total parenteral nutrition, OI: oral intake.