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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects categorized by fasting glucose tolerance status

From: Indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion from a standard liquid meal test in subjects with type 2 diabetes, impaired or normal fasting glucose

     P-Values
Parameter NFG IFG Diabetes NFG vs. IFG NFG vs. Diabetes IFG vs. Diabetes
Total Number, M/F (n/n) 19 (5/14) 19 (9/10) 35 (28/7) 0.313 < 0.001 0.031
Age (years) 45.1 ± 4.2 45.7 ± 3.3 61.0 ± 2.0 0.989 <0.001 0.002
BMI (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 1.0 29.3 ± 1.2 32.7 ± 0.7 0.071 < 0.001 0.045
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.35 ± 0.39 5.17 ± 0.24 4.72 ± 0.17 0.903 0.202 0.437
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.19 ± 0.35 2.96 ± 0.18 2.69 ± 0.14 0.799 0.246 0.649
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.53 ± 0.09 1.44 ± 0.12 1.07 ± 0.05 0.758 < 0.001 0.005
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.38 ± 0.18 1.73 ± 0.27 2.29 ± 0.25 0.695 0.048 0.308
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 117.0 ± 3.4 122.6 ± 3.3 129.1 ± 2.3 0.484 0.015 0.284
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 72.6 ± 1.9 78.2 ± 1.8 77.1 ± 1.6 0.165 0.214 0.918
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.22 ± 0.05 5.87 ± 0.06 7.53 ± 0.29 0.249 < 0.001 < 0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/L) 52.8 ± 6.0 82.0 ± 11.0 124.8 ± 13.9 0.373 < 0.001 0.068
Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L) 0.63 ± 0.05 0.89 ± 0.08 1.27 ± 0.08 0.110 < 0.001 0.004
HbA1C (%) 5.2 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.1 0.907 < 0.001 < 0.001
Glucose AUC (h*mmol/L) 11.1 ± 0.5 14.1 ± 0.8 23.1 ± 0.8 0.059 < 0.001 < 0.001
Insulin AUC (h*pmol/L) 894 ± 121 1346 ± 180 922 ± 103 0.102 0.988 0.075
C-peptide AUC (h*nmol/L) 4.2 ± 0.3 5.6 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.3 0.032 0.531 0.162
AUCins/glu (pmol/mmol) 78.6 ± 8.8 95.5 ± 12.2 40.7 ± 4.4 0.398 0.003 < 0.001
HOMA2-IR 1.00 ± 0.11 1.57 ± 0.21 2.48 ± 0.26 0.346 < 0.001 0.037
HOMA2-%B 83.7 ± 5.9 89.5 ± 7.9 86.7 ± 10.6 0.936 0.976 0.981
Matsuda Index 15.6 ± 2.0 8.8 ± 1.2 6.0 ± 0.6 0.003 < 0.001 0.254
  1. Values are mean ± SEM unless otherwise specified.
  2. Abbreviations: AUC = area under the curve, AUCins/glu= ratio of the total areas under the curve for insulin and glucose, BMI = body mass index, BP = blood pressure, HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL = high-density lipoprotein, HOMA2-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA2-%B = homeostasis model assessment of pancreatic beta-cell function, IFG = impaired fasting glucose, LDL = low-density lipoprotein, M/F = male/female, NFG = normal fasting glucose, Diabetes = type 2 diabetes mellitus