Skip to main content

Table 2 Estimates of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines in food items and alcoholic beverages by the National Birth Defects Prevention Study calculated serving size

From: Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

Dairy Products     
Food Item Serving Size g Nitrates mg/serving Nitrites mg/serving Nitrosamines μg/serving
Cheese (1 slice or 1 oz) 28 0.400 0.023 0.066
Cottage or ricotta cheese (1/2 cup) 113 0.260 0.000 0.266
Ice cream (1/2 cup) 72 0.209 0.038 0.031
Skim or low fat milk (8 oz glass) 244 0.862 0.011 0.209
Whole milk (8 oz glass) 244 0.212 0.001 0.065
Yogurt (1 cup) 245 0.333 0.071 0.002
Fruit Products     
Avocado (1) or guacamole (1 cup) 201 5.278 0.042 0.010
Bananas (1) 114 2.280 0.043 0.006
Cantaloupe (1/4 melon) 134 12.730 0.051 0.006
Fresh apples or pears (1) 138 1.436 0.014 0.007
Hawaiian punch, lemonade, or other fruit drinks (1 glass) 244 2.367 0.000 0.000
Orange juice (small glass) 186 3.720 0.000 0.000
Oranges (1) 184 3.680 0.000 0.000
Other fruits fresh, frozen, or canned (1/2 cup) 142 3.728 0.030 0.007
Peaches, apricots, plums, or nectarines (1 or 1/2 cup) 87 0.564 0.014 0.004
Raw chile peppers, jalapeño (1) 14 0.742 0.009 0.000
Salsa (1 cup) (fruit or tomato) 259 9.094 0.140 0.000
Tomatoes (1) or tomato juice (small glass) 123 3.953 0.054 0.000
Grain Products     
Biscuit, scone, croissant and muffin (1) 80 0.328 0.032 0.012
Cereal 30 0.138 0.039 0.012
Dark bread (slice) including wheat pita bread 25 0.213 0.030 0.000
Rice or pasta (1 cup) 140 2.305 0.303 0.000
Tortilla (1) 19 0.304 0.031 0.002
White bread (slice), pita bread, bagels and crackers 25 0.410 0.042 0.002
Meat and Bean Products     
Bacon (2 slices) 16 1.449 0.467 0.219
Beans or lentils, baked or dried (1/2 cup) 131 1.179 0.341 0.000
Beans, refried (1 cup) 252 2.268 0.655 0.000
Beef, pork, lamb or cabrito as a main dish (4–6 oz) 140 8.188 1.840 0.453
Beef, pork, lamb or cabrito sandwich or mixed dish 100 5.849 1.314 0.324
Chicken livers (1 oz) 28 0.958 0.571 0.007
Chicken or turkey (4–6 oz) 88 0.583 0.478 0.086
Eggs (1) 58 0.311 0.095 0.000
Fish (3–6 oz) 112 1.027 0.349 0.222
Hamburger (1 patty) 77 6.102 0.193 0.071
Hot dogs (1) 45 11.565 1.220 0.128
Liver, non specific (3–4 oz) 82 10.325 1.608 0.022
Organ meats and tongue (3–4 oz) 85 0.882 0.480 0.062
Peas or lima beans (1/2 cup frozen, canned) 80 2.634 0.070 0.000
Processed meats – sausage, salami, lunchmeat, pâté (piece or slice) 28 1.700 0.314 0.124
Vegetable Products     
Broccoli (1/2 cup) 78 26.607 0.251 0.000
Cabbage, cauliflower, brussel sprouts (1/2 cup) 75 12.976 0.143 0.000
Carrots, cooked (1/2 cup) 78 13.013 0.115 0.000
Carrots, raw (1/2 cup or 2–4 sticks) 36 6.006 0.053 0.000
Corn (1 ear or 1/2 cup frozen, canned) 82 3.690 0.164 0.000
Potatoes baked, boiled (1) or mashed (1 cup) 156 22.673 0.164 0.000
Soy milk or soy yogurt (8 oz) 244 13.333 0.220 0.000
Spinach or collard greens, cooked (1/2 cup) 90 188.999 0.177 0.000
Squash (1/2 cup) 103 43.608 0.082 0.000
String beans (1/2 cup) 68 11.767 0.128 0.000
Tofu, tempeh or soy burgers (4oz) 113 6.174 0.102 0.000
Yams or sweet potatoes (1/2 cup) 68 3.128 0.048 0.000
Fats, Oils, Nuts, and Sweets     
Butter (pat), added to food or bread 5 0.000 0.000 0.000
Cake (slice) or donut (1) 64 1.600 0.083 0.000
Candy without chocolate (1 oz) 28 0.000 0.000 0.010
Chocolate (1 oz) 21 0.000 0.000 0.010
Cookies (1) 25 0.092 0.011 0.002
French fried potatoes (4 oz) 112 4.144 0.078 0.000
Margarine (pat), added to food or bread 5 0.002 0.000 0.000
Nuts (small packet or 1 oz) 18 0.104 0.006 0.000
Oil and vinegar dressing (1 tbs) 15 0.000 0.000 0.000
Peanut butter (1 tbs) 16 0.093 0.006 0.000
Pie (slice) 125 2.338 0.138 0.000
Potato or corn chips (small bag or 1oz) 28 1.049 0.020 0.000
Alcoholic Beverages     
Beer (12 fl. oz/354.9 ml) 357 - - 0.531
Wine (5 fl. oz/147.9 ml) 136 - - 0.019
Liquor and mixed drinks (1.5 fl. oz/44.4 ml) 41 - - 0.027
Malt beverages (8 fl. oz/236.6 ml) 245 - - 0.301