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Table 2 Plasma levels of micronutrients and vitamins as well as IgG content of protein carbonyls and plasma MDA levels observed in the study participants (n = 112) at each monthly counseling session (mean ± SD): baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T1), 8 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3).

From: Plasma micronutrient status is improved after a 3-month dietary intervention with 5 daily portions of fruits and vegetables: implications for optimal antioxidant levels

Parameter T0 T1 T2 T3
Lutein (μmol/L) 0.37 ± 0.16 0.39 ± 0.16 0.40 ± 0.15 0.41 ± 0.16 *
Zeaxanthin (μmol/L) 0.08 ± 0.07 0.08 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.03
β-Cryptoxanthin (μmol/L) 0.35 ± 0.36 0.35 ± 0.28 0.31 ± 0.25 0.27 ± 0.19
Lycopene (μmol/L) 0.45 ± 0.28 0.50 ± 0.33 0.49 ± 0.30 0.51 ± 0.28 *
α-Carotene (μmol/L) 0.12 ± 0.13 0.19 ± 0.18 0.19 ± 0.17 0.18 ± 0.17 *
β-Carotene (μmol/L) 0.65 ± 0.45 0.87 ± 0.64 0.86 ± 0.65 0.85 ± 0.62 *
Retinol (μmol/L) 1.35 ± 0.35 1.33 ± 0.35 1.34 ± 0.35 1.33 ± 0.30
α-Tocopherol (μmol/L) 28.9 ± 10.3 28.7 ± 11.4 28.4 ± 9.6 29.5 ± 9.8
Vitamin C (μmol/L) 55.1 ± 20.9 57.4 ± 26.9 55.6 ± 23.3 63.6 ± 21.8 *
Vitamin B6 (nmol/L) 48.3 ± 30.9 65.4 ± 39.2 64.0 ± 37.5 64.4 ± 41.6 *
IgG Carbonyls (nmol/mg) 0.79 ± 0.64 0.87 ± 0.9 0.87 ± 0.79 0.80 ± 0.67
MDA (μmol/L) 0.15 ± 0.11 0.17 ± 0.12 0.16 ± 0.11 0.17 ± 0.16
  1. * p < 0.01, two-sided pair-wise t-test after correction for age, gender and smoking status