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Table 4 Heaviest participants (body-weight ≥ 100 kg) initiating smoking at ≤ 20 years: relative risk of hospital-treated pneumonia by vitamin E supplementation

From: Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

   Intervention Effect of vitamin E  
   Vitamin E No vitamin E   
Subgroup No. of participants No. of cases No. of cases RR (95% CI)* P-value for interaction
All 1226 20 7 3.10 (1.30–7.4)  
BMI †      
   < median 613 8 4 2.18 (0.64–7.4) 0.3
   ≥ median 613 12 3 4.66 (1.30–16.7)  
Height †      
   < median 593 11 5 2.19 (0.75–6.3) 0.4
   ≥ median 633 9 2 5.50 (1.11–27.1)  
Dietary vitamin E †      
   < median 613 11 4 3.00 (0.94–9.5) 0.9
   ≥ median 613 9 3 3.85 (0.93–15.9)  
Dietary vitamin C †      
   < median 613 8 6 1.37 (0.46–4.0) 0.019
   ≥ median 613 12 1 14.5 (1.84–114.5)  
Residual of fruit, vegetables, berries †      
   < median 613 12 4 3.55 (1.13–11.2) 0.8
   ≥ median 613 8 3 2.65 (0.69–10.1)  
β-Carotene supplementation      
   No 622 10 3 3.23 (0.89–11.8) 0.9
   Yes 604 10 4 3.90 (1.10–13.8)  
  1. * Proportional hazards regression model comparing participants who received vitamin E with those who did not. The regression models were adjusted for age, baseline smoking, intake of coffee and alcohol, BMI and employment. Participants with missing data on confounders (n = 102) are excluded from this table. The sizes of all compared intervention groups are the same within 15% accuracy. RR, risk ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. † The medians for the high-weight group are: weight 106.0 kg; BMI 33.5 kg/m2; height 179 cm; dietary vitamin E intake 12.4 mg/day; dietary vitamin C intake 95.5 mg/day; residual of fruit, vegetable, and berry intake -4.8 g/day.