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Table 3 Lightest participants (body-weight < 60 kg) initiating smoking at ≤ 20 years: relative risk of hospital-treated pneumonia by vitamin E supplementation

From: Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

   Intervention Effect of vitamin E  
   Vitamin E No vitamin E   
Subgroup No. of participants No. of cases No. of cases RR (95% CI)* P-value for interaction
All 935 41 25 1.84 (1.11–3.0)  
BMI †      
   < median 467 25 17 1.87 (0.99–3.5) 0.8
   ≥ median 468 16 8 2.12 (0.90–5.0)  
Height †      
   < median 461 16 10 1.91 (0.85–4.3) 0.9
   ≥ median 474 25 15 1.86 (0.97–3.6)  
Dietary vitamin E †      
   < median 467 15 15 1.30 (0.63–2.7) 0.2
   ≥ median 468 26 10 2.70 (1.30–5.6)  
Dietary vitamin C †      
   < median 467 15 16 0.98 (0.48–2.0) 0.026
   ≥ median 468 26 9 3.48 (1.61–7.5)  
Residual of fruit, vegetables, berries †      
   < median 467 19 15 1.53 (0.76–3.1) 0.6
   ≥ median 468 22 10 2.27 (1.06–4.9)  
β-Carotene supplementation      
   No 476 23 12 2.20 (1.06–4.5) 0.7
   Yes 459 18 13 1.62 (0.78–3.4)  
  1. * Proportional hazards regression model comparing participants who received vitamin E with those who did not. The regression models were adjusted for age, baseline smoking, intake of coffee and alcohol, BMI and employment. Participants with missing data on confounders (n = 119) are excluded from this table. The sizes of all compared intervention groups are the same within 25% accuracy. RR, risk ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. † The medians for the light-weight group are: weight 57.0 kg; BMI 20.0 kg/m2; height 168 cm; dietary vitamin E intake 9.1 mg/day; dietary vitamin C intake 75.3 mg/day; residual of fruit, vegetable, and berry intake -2.9 g/day.