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Table 1 Summary of proposed causes and treatments for common mental health disorders

From: Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

Mental Disorder Proposed Cause Treatment References Type of Study
Major Depression Serotonin deficiency Tryptophan [15]
[32]
Human pilot clinical trial
Double-blind, placebo controlled
  Dopamine/Noradrenaline deficiency Tyrosine [30]
[36]
Double-blind, placebo controlled
Randomized within or between subjects
  GABA deficiency GABA [29] Clinical trial
  Omega-3 deficiency Omega-3s [39] Clinical trial
  Folate/Vitamin B deficiency Folate/Vitamin B [9]
[13]
Randomized controlled trial
Clinical trial
  Magnesium deficiency Magnesium [14] Cases studies
  SAM deficiency SAM [37] Double-blind, placebo controlled
Bipolar Disorder Excess acetylcholine receptors Lithium orotate & taurine [50] Clinical trial
  Excess vanadium Vitamin C [45] Double-blind, placebo controlled
  Vitamin B/Folate deficiency Vitamin B/Folate [47]
[71]
Human pilot clinical trial
Clinical trial
  L-Tryptophan deficiency L-Tryptophan [72] Clinical trial
  Choline deficiency Lecithin [73] Double-blind, placebo controlled
  Omega-3 deficiency Omega-3s [21]
[48]
[74]
[75]
Double-blind, placebo controlled
Clinical trial
Clinical trial
Double-blind, placebo controlled
Schizophrenia Impaired serotonin synthesis Tryptophan [53] Open-baseline controlled trial
  Glycine deficiency Glycine [54]
[55]
[56]
Double-blind, placebo controlled
Human pilot open-label trial
Clinical trial
  Omega-3 deficiencies Omega-3s [59]
[60]
[65]
Double-blind, placebo controlled
Randomized, placebo controlled
Open-label clinical trial
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder St. John's wort deficiency St John's wort [69]
[70]
Randomized, double-blind trial
Double-blind, placebo controlled