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Table 2 Mean change from baseline in serum biomarkers during feeding study – Average American vs. Intervention Diet1

From: The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men

  Baseline Change Following Average American Diet2 Change Following Intervention Diet2 P-value for Difference in Change
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.01 ± 0.16 -0.02 ± 0.12 -0.18 ± 0.12 0.13
HDL, mmol/L 1.36 ± 0.06 -0.04 ± 0.04 -0.05 ± 0.04 0.95
Oxidized LDL, mmol/L 2.61 ± 0.16 -0.15 ± 0.11 -0.16 ± 0.11 0.98
Triglycerides3, mmol/L 1.31 ± 1.01 1.00 ± 1.00 1.00 ± 1.00 0.48
LDL, mmol/L 3.11 ± 0.15 0.03 ± 0.13 -0.10 ± 0.13 0.21
LDL:HDL 2.37 ± 0.16 0.15 ± 0.15 0.04 ± 0.15 0.34
Non-HDL:HDL 2.79 ± 0.19 0.18 ± 0.15 0.03 ± 0.15 0.28
Total PSA, μg/L 5.02 ± 0.63 -0.07 ± 0.35 0.05 ± 0.36 0.75
Free PSA, μg/L 0.92 ± 0.13 0.05 ± 0.10 0.13 ± 0.10 0.56
Percent Free PSA3, % 38.8 ± 1.04 1.03 ± 1.03 0.99 ± 1.03 0.07
Testosterone nmol/L 16.4 ± 1.11 -0.60 ± 0.70 -0.75 ± 0.70 0.82
Bioavailable testosterone nmol/L 4.66 ± 0.29 -0.35 ± 0.26 -0.34 ± 0.26 0.99
Percent bioavailable testosterone, % 0.92 ± 0.13 -0.85 ± 0.93 -0.45 ± 0.94 0.66
IGF-1, μg/L 143 ± 9.11 10.6 ± 5.85 1.79 ± 6.07 0.13
3α-Androstanediol glucuronide, nmol/L 13.8 ± 1.55 -0.02 ± 0.01 -0.02 ± 0.01 0.90
Estradiol, pmol/L 97.7 ± 5.74 1.22 ± 4.02 -3.85 ± 4.02 0.34
Alpha-tocopherol,4 μmol/L 29.3 ± 2.19 -0.71 ± 1.30 -2.65 ± 1.30 0.13
Gamma- tocopherol,4 μmol/L 4.14 ± 0.43 0.26 ± 0.52 0.83 ± 0.52 0.08
Tocopherol ratio alpha:gamma4 11.0 ± 9.91 -0.51 ± 1.99 -3.49 ± 1.99 0.01
  1. 1Values are least-squares means ± SEM, n = 21. Data presented from the final model, in which weight was significant only for tocopherols and IGF-1 and was omitted for all other variables.
  2. 2Change scores calculated for each diet as Δ = mean concentration following diet – mean concentration at baseline.
  3. 3Triglyceride and percent free PSA (n = 20) change score data were log-transformed, and change scores are presented as geometric means.
  4. 4 n = 20. Tocopherol change score adjusted for change in weight between the two diets.