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Table 1 BMI (or weight), smoking status, and vitamin C intake of participants involved in studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Is plasma vitamin C an appropriate biomarker of vitamin C intake? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Measured Vitamin C intake (mg/d)
Study BMI/Weight (kg) Smoking Status DR/WR/FR FFQ
1. Bingham et al., 1995 [12] NR NR 87 (56) 122 (53)
Taken from 1994     
2. Block et al., 2001 [33] Wt = 82.6 (11.0) non-smoker NR NR
3. Boeing et al., 1997 [34] NR adjusted for smoking NR NR
4. Bolton-Smith et al., 1991 [28]   non-smoker   
both gender 25.8 (3.2)    61.1 (24.8)
5. Chiplonkar et al., 2002 [35]   NR NR NR
Men BMI = 20.8 (3.3)    
Women BMI = 20.8 (3.9)    
6. Costa de Carvalho et al., 1996 [36]   NR   
Men BMI = 24.8 (3.5)   88 (79)  
Women BMI = 22.4 (3.4)   83 (77)  
7. Cooney et al., 1995 [37] NR Non-smoker NR NR
8. Drewnowski et al., 1997 [15]   NR NR NR
Men BMI = 24.4    
Women BMI = 22.6    
9. EPIC group of Spain, 1997 [38]     DH
Men NR NR 100.9 (50.1) 116.4 (86)
Women    110.8 (57) 121.9 (72.3)
10. Faruque et al., 1995 [39]     
both gender 20.0 (0.4) Non-smoker 83.4 (7.5) ------
11. Hudiburgh et al., 1979 [40]     
Women NR NR 140 (148) ------
12. Jacques et al., 1993 [41]     
Men NR NR ------ 256 (154)
Women     221 (154)
13. Katsouyanni et al., 1997 [42]     
Men   non-smoker 170.3 (59.1) 304.8 (145.5)
Women    145.7 (44.7) 327.5 (170.1)
14. Lori et al., 1998 [43]     
Men    73.1  
Women    75.2  
15. Malekshah et al., 2006 [44]     
Men 24.0 (3.9) NR 45 (21) 89 (54)
Women 26.5 (5.8)   37 (24) 69 (42)
16. McKeowen et al., 2001 [45]     
Men 27 (3) NR 77 (34) 111 (41)
Women 25 (4)   95 (48) 132 (65)
17. Palli et al., 1999 [46] * adjusted for smoking   
Men    ------ 92.7 (2.0)
Women     95.4 (2.2)
18. Porrini et al., 1995 [47] 21.1 (2.7) Non-smoker   
both gender    86.4 (39.7) 108.7 (49.2)
19. Riemersma et al., 2000 [48] 26.1 (0.3) adjusted for smoking ------ 54.8 (1.8)
20. Rousseau et al. 2004 [49] 2.4 (2.5) Non-smoker ------  
21. Schroder et al., 2001 [50]     
both gender 22.4 (2.9) 8% smoker 105 (100) 267 (182)
22. Simon et al., 2001 [2] 25.5–26.6 Adjusted ------  
23. Sinha et al., 1992 [51] Wt = 80.9 (1.34) kg Non-smoker ------ 155 (11.0)
24. Tusgane et al., 1998 [52]   Adjusted for smoking   55.7
25. Wright et al., 1995 [53] Normal population Smoker and non-smoker   
Men    66 (5)  
Women    72 (5)  
  1. *317 subject < 23.4, 322 subjects 23.4–26.3, 306 subjects > 26.3
  2. NR not reported NA not available DH dietary history