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Table 5 Risk of suboptimal or elevated serum biomarker concentrations and elevated blood pressure by supplement user group.

From: Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

Outcome Cases: n/(%) OR* 95% CI*
Homocysteine (>9 μmol/L)    
   Multiple Supp users 30/(10.9) 0.11 0.06–0.19
   Single Supp users 69/(37.0) 0.53 0.34–0.83
   No Supp users 282/(45.3) 1.00  
C-reactive protein (>0.3 mg/dL)    
   Multiple Supp users 0/(0.00)
   Single Supp users 51/(30.6) 0.66 0.40–1.09
   No Supp users 230/(41.3) 1.00  
Total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL)    
   Multiple Supp users 145/(52.5) 0.78 0.56–1.09
   Single Supp users 89/(57.8) 1.08 0.72–1.62
   No Supp users 291/(54.3) 1.00  
HDL-cholesterol (<40 mg/dL males, <50 mg/dL females)    
   Multiple Supp users 44/(15.8) 0.50 0.33–0.75
   Single Supp users 40/(24.5) 0.58 0.41–0.83
   No Supp users 203/(38.0) 1.00  
Ratio total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (<5)    
   Multiple Supp users 35/(12.7) 0.49 0.32–0.74
   Single Supp users 48/(35.3) 1.05 0.64–1.73
   No Supp users 189/(36.5) 1.00  
Triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL)    
   Multiple Supp users 52/(18.8) 0.44 0.27–0.71
   Single Supp users 31/(41.5) 0.99 0.50–1.94
   No Supp users 157/(42.8) 1.00  
LDL-cholesterol (>130 mg/dL)    
   Multiple Supp users 109/(39.5) 0.96 0.56–1.65
   Single Supp users 32/(47.6) 1.19 0.70–2.03
   No Supp users 101/(42.7) 1.00  
Blood Pressure (DBP>80 mmHg or SBP>120 mmHg)    
   Multiple Supp users 154/(55.6) 0.61 0.41–0.92
   Single Supp users 117/(71.2) 1.34 0.88–2.03
   No Supp users 353/(64.6) 1.00  
  1. * Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted as in footnote to Table 4. The referent group for risk estimation was the No Supp group.
  2. OR and 95% CI not estimable because zero events in the user group. Number and percent shown instead.
  3. HDL = high-density lipoprotein, LDL = low-density lipoprotein, DBP = diastolic blood pressure, SBP = systolic blood pressure.