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Table 2 Characteristics of the three supplement user groups: multiple dietary supplement users (Multiple Supp) from Shaklee, and multivitamin/mineral users (Single Supp) and non-users (No Supp) from NHANES 2001–2002.

From: Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic No Supp n = 602 Single Supp n = 176 Multiple Supp n = 278 P-value*
Sex (% female) 40.5 44.6 57.9 <0.0001
Race (% white) 100 100 98.9  
Age, years (mean, SE) 53.7 (0.59) 57.0 (0.99) 63.3 (0.48) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (mean, SE) 29.4 (0.32) 27.9 (0.46) 25.9 (0.31) <0.001
Education (%)     <0.0001
   < High School Graduate 16.8 14.7 1.8  
   High School Graduate 29.1 30.1 12.2  
   > High School Graduate 54.2 55.2 86.0  
Annual income (%)     <0.0001
   < $30,000 19.7 17.3 2.5  
   $30,000–39,999 16.4 14.4 6.8  
   $40,000–49,999 18.2 19.9 4.7  
   $50,000–59,999 6.9 10.2 13.3  
   $60,000–69,999 6.3 3.3 10.8  
   ≥ $70,000 32.6 34.9 61.9  
  1. *Differences among the supplement user groups were evaluated using chi-square methods for categorical variables and one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables. BMI = body mass index.