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Table 4 Association between serum folate concentrations and consumption of tobacco, coffee, and alcohol in the study sample of Cretan adults.

From: Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study

  Age- & gender-adjusted 1 Multivariate-adjusted 2
  Geometric mean (95% CI)
Tobacco consumption   
   Non/ex-smokers (n = 314) 18.0 (16.9–19.1) 17.4 (16.3–18.6)
   Current smokers (n = 165) 16.0 (14.7–17.4)3 16.2 (14.9–17.7)
<10 cigs/day (n = 52) 17.7 (15.3–20.5) 16.5 (14.1–19.4)
10–19 cigs/day (n = 36) 15.0 (12.6–17.9) 14.7 (12.2–17.8)
≥20 cigs/day (n = 76) 14.6 (12.9–16.5)4 14.9 (12.9–17.2)
Coffee consumption   
   None (n = 102) 18.2 (16.4–20.2) 17.9 (16.2–19.8)
   ≤200 g/day (n = 195) 16.9 (15.7–18.2) 17.2 (16.0–18.5)
   >200 g/day (n = 86) 15.5 (13.8–17.3)5 15.6 (14.0–17.4)
Alcohol consumption   
   None (n = 293) 17.0 (16.0–18.1) 17.0 (16.0–18.0)
   ≤180 g/day (n = 43) 16.0 (13.6–18.9) 16.1 (13.8–18.9)
   >180 g/day (n = 47) 16.8 (14.4–19.7) 18.2 (15.6–21.2)
  1. 1 ANCOVA, controlling for age and gender.
  2. 2 ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, district of residence, total energy intake, intakes of MUFA, fibre, calcium, magnesium, folate, vitamins A, E, C, B1, B6 (all log transformed).
  3. 4 Non/ex-smokers had significantly higher serum folate concentrations than current smokers (p = 0.029).
  4. 5 p = 0.047, linear trend by level of tobacco consumption.
  5. 6 p = 0.035, linear trend by level of coffee consumption.