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Table 2 Characteristics of study population, 1986 vs. 1999

From: Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

  Men Women
  1986 (n = 784) 1999 (n = 632) P1 1986 (n = 757) 1999 (n = 692) P1
Age (y) 45.0 ± 11 45.7 ± 11 0.25 44.6 ± 11 45.7 ± 11 0.07
Primary education only (%)2 58 22 <0.001 54 18 <0.001
Sedentary (%)2,3 59 66 0.01 56 78 <0.001
Smokers (%)2,4 34 18 <0.001 31 24 0.003
Intake of alcohol (g/d) 2.7 ± 2.6 3.7 ± 5.4 <0.001 1.3 ± 1.4 2.0 ± 1.6 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.6 ± 3.5 26.6 ± 3.4 <0.001 25.0 ± 4.4 25.9 ± 4.5 <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 93.0 ± 9.6 94.9 ± 9.8 <0.001 85.3 ± 12.4 84.0 ± 12.0 <0.004
Hip circumference (cm) 97.9 ± 6.1 103.1 ± 6.5 <0.001 98.5 ± 8.8 103.0 ± 8.6 <0.001
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.95 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.07 <0.001 0.86 ± 0.07 0.81 ± 0.07 <0.001
Energy from alcohol (%) 1.1 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 1.4 <0.001 0.6 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 0.7 <0.001
Energy from fat (%) 38.5 ± 5.7 37.0 ± 6.0 <0.001 37.8 ± 5.7 36.2 ± 6.1 <0.001
Energy from saturated fat (%) 17.3 ± 3.2 15.4 ± 3.1 <0.001 16.7 ± 3.1 14.6 ± 3.2 <0.001
NSP intake (g/MJ)5 2.2 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.6 0.06 2.4 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.7 <0.002
Reported intake (MJ/d) 7.6 ± 2.4 7.5 ± 2.5 0.80 7.0 ± 2.1 7.4 ± 2.0 <0.003
  1. 1Education, physical activity and smoking status: Chi-square test for categories, all other two tailed t-test for difference between means
  2. 2Education, physical activity and smoking status as percentage of same-sex population, all other values are x ± SD
  3. 3 Less then 1 hour of strenuous physical activity per week
  4. 4 Including recent (< 6 month) ex-smokers, since FFQ covered past 12 months
  5. 5 Non-Starch-Polysaccharides = dietary fibre