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Table 2 Characteristics, co-existing medical conditions and diagnosis of children aged <60 months with severe malnutrition.

From: Severe malnutrition with and without HIV-1 infection in hospitalised children in Kampala, Uganda: differences in clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+cell counts

  HIV-positive children
n (%)
HIV-negative children
n (%)
Odds ratio
(95% CI)
Symptoms and signs (n = 123) (n = 192)  
Diarrhoea (all) 52 (42) 67 (35) 1.4 (0.9–2.2)
Persistent diarrhoea (>2 weeks) 32 (26) 28 (15) 2.1 (1.1–3.8)*
Oral thrush 20 (16) 15 (8) 2.3 (1.1–4.7)*
Bilateral oedema (nutritional) 53 (43) 119 (62) 0.5 (0.3–0.7)*
Severe dehydration 7 (6) 11 (6) 1.0 (0.4–2.7)
Chest x-ray findings (n = 109) (n = 158)  
Bronchopneumonia 26 (24) 48 (30) 0.7 (0.4–1.3)
Interstitial pneumonia 40 (37) 48 (30) 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
Suspected tuberculosis 14 (13) 18 (11) 1.2 (0.5–2.4)
Blood tests (n = 122) (n = 191)  
Malarial parasites 10 (9) 19 (11) 0.9 (0.4–1.9)
Severe anaemia (Hb < 5 g/dL) 10 (8) 2 (6) 1.3 (0.6–3.3)
Bacteraemia 24 (20) 32 (17) 1.2 (0.7–2.2)
Urine tests (n = 109) (n = 160)  
Bacteruria 33 (30) 36 (23) 1.5 (0.9–2.6)
  1. *Statistically significant