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Table 2 Relationship between urinary lithogen factors, types of renal calculi and dietary recommendations

From: Renal lithiasis and nutrition

Urinary Lithogen Factor Values of potentially lithogenic urinary biochemical parameters Type of renal calculi Dietary recommendations
pH < 5.5 COM u
UA
COM/UA
CYS
Decrease habitual consumption of:
• Animal protein
Increase habitual consumption of:
• Citrus juices
• Soft-drinks
• Citric acid rich beverages
pH > 6.0 COM p
COM u
COD
HAP
COD/HAP
BRU
Decrease habitual consumption of:
• Vegetarian diet
• Citrus juices
• Soft-drinks
• Citric acid rich beverages
Calcium >170 mg/L
female: >250 mg/24 h
male: >300 mg/24 h
COD
HAP
COD/HAP
Increase habitual consumption of:
• Water intake (> 2 l/day)
Decrease habitual consumption of:
• Sodium
• Animal protein
Control:
• Vitamin D consumption
• Calcium supplements
Oxalate > 40 mg/24 h COM p
COM u
Decrease habitual consumption of:
• Oxalate rich foods (see Table 4)
• Ascorbic acid rich foods
(vitamin C intake greater than 2 g/day)
Citrate < 350 mg/24 h COM p
COM u
COD
HAP
COD/HAP
Increase habitual consumption of:
• Citrate rich foods
• Citric acid rich beverages
Phytate < 1 mg/24 h COM p
COM u
COD
BRU
Increase habitual consumption of:
• Phytate rich foods (see Table 3)
Urate > 650 mg/ml
female: > 600 mg/24 h
male: > 800 mg/24 h
UA
COM/UA
Decrease habitual consumption of:
• Purine rich foods (see Table 5)
• Alcoholic drinks
  1. COM p: Calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary
  2. COM u: Calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached (formed in renal cavities)
  3. COD: Calcium oxalate dihydrate
  4. COD/HAP: Calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite mixed
  5. HAP: Hydroxyapatite
  6. STR: Struvite infectious
  7. BRU: Brushite
  8. UA: Uric acid
  9. COM/UA: Calcium oxalate/uric acid mixed
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