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Table 1 Summary of randomized, controlled trials of the impact of nutritional interventions on infections in the non-hospitalized population

From: Nutritional therapy and infectious diseases: a two-edged sword

Intervention Effect Reference
Zinc supplementation No effect on common colds 11
Zinc supplementation reduced infection incidence in sickle cell patients 12
Zinc and selenium supplementation Reduced infection incidence 18
Vitamin and mineral supplementation Reduced infection incidence in type II diabetics only 13
Vitamin and mineral supplementation Reduced infection incidence 17
Multivitamin supplements No effect on infection incidence 14
Multivitamin supplements No effect on pneumonia incidence 15
Vitamin E supplements Reduced URI rate, no effect on lower respiratory tract rate 16
Vitamin C therapy or supplements No effect on common cold unless used in hypothermic conditions 26
Cranberry juice Reduced incidence of bacteriuria 29, 30
Yogurt Reduced diarrhea incidence in adults taking antibiotics 32
Yogurt No effect on diarrhea incidence 33
Lactobacilli Reduced incidence of diarrhea in children 34–36
Lactobacilli No effect on diarrhea incidence in adults 37