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Table 4 The life style practices of students in Japan and Korea. Table 4 shows the results of questions related to dietary practices with special reference to eating habits. Meal patterns, consumption of fruits and vegetables, consumption of fried foods, consumption of alcohol were assessed for Japan and Korean students. Behavioral differences between two countries were compared using chi-square analyses. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05.

From: A comparative study of food habits and body shape perception of university students in Japan and Korea

Questions Levels Total (%) Japan (%) Korea (%) p values
Do you take your meals regularly always regular 120 (45.3) 74 (59.7) 46 (32.6) **
  irregular 145 (54.7) 50 (40.3) 95 (67.4)  
Do you always take breakfast daily 149 (56.2) 98 (79.0) 51 (36.2) **
  three or four times per week 22 (8.3) 3 (2.4) 19 (13.5)  
  once or twice per week 37 (14.0) 12 (9.7) 25 (17.7)  
  rarely 57 (21.5) 11 (8.9) 46 (32.6)  
How many times do you eat meals except snacks one time 19 (7.3) 5 (4.1) 14 (9.9) **
  two times 100 (38.2) 17 (14.0) 83 (58.9)  
  three times 141 (53.8) 98 (81.0) 43 (30.5)  
  four times 2 (0.8) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7)  
How often do you take snacks apart from regular meals daily 92 (34.7) 41 (33.1) 51 (36.2) n.s
  three or four times per week 70 (26.4) 28 (22.6) 42 (29.8)  
  once or twice per week 64 (24.2) 34 (27.4) 30 (21.3)  
  rarely 39 (14.7) 21 (16.9) 18 (12.8)  
How often do you eat green, red or yellow colored vegetables daily 126 (48.1) 70 (56.5) 56 (40.3) *
  three or four times per week 46 (17.6) 18 (14.5) 28 (20.1)  
  once or twice per week 76 (29.0) 30 (24.2) 46 (33.1)  
  rarely 14 (5.3) 5 (4.0) 9 (6.5)  
How often do you eat fruits daily 62 (23.6) 18 (14.5) 44 (31.7) **
  three or four times per week 85 (32.3) 44 (35.5) 41 (29.5)  
  once or twice per week 62 (23.6) 21 (16.9) 41 (29.5)  
  rarely 54 (20.5) 41 (33.1) 13 (9.4)  
How often do you eat fried food daily 12 (4.6) 9 (7.3) 3 (2.2) n.s
  three or four times per week 137 (52.1) 67 (54.0) 70 (50.4)  
  once or twice per week 47 (17.9) 29 (23.4) 18 (12.9)  
  rarely 67 (25.5) 19 (15.3) 48 (34.5)  
How often do you take alcohol daily 2 (0.8) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) **
  two or three times per week 63 (24.2) 18 (14.5) 45 (33.1)  
  rarely 195 (75.0) 105 (84.7) 90 (66.2)  
How often do you eat with friends and family daily 183 (69.8) 91 (74.0) 92 (66.2) n.s
  three or four times per week 29 (11.1) 14 (11.4) 15 (10.8)  
  once or twice per week 31 (11.8) 5 (4.1) 26 (18.7)  
  always alone 19 (7.3) 13 (10.6) 6 (4.3)  
Please state your smoking history current smoker 37 (14.2) 24 19.8 13 9.4 **
  never smoke 223 (85.8) 97 80.2 126 90.6  
What type of food do you think you should eat to have a balanced nutrition mainly meat 2 (0.8) 1 (1.4) 1 (0.7) n.s
  mainly vegetable 46 (18.0) 21 (9.1) 25 (18.0)  
  meat, vegetable and other variety of food 181 (70.7) 78 (87.8) 103 (74.1)  
  others 27 (10.5) 17 (1.7) 10 (7.2)