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Table 6 Relationships between lung function and retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations, when the three vitamins were simultaneously included in the model*

From: Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

Plasma vitamin concentrations (μMol/L)   FEV1 (ml) Estimate (SD) p-value FVC (ml) Estimate (SD) p-value
Retinol Level 13.9 (7.5) 0.06 16.6 (9.5) 0.08
  Change 3.5 (1.5) 0.02 5.7 (1.9) 0.00
Carotene Level 14.6 (3.6) 0.00 13.1 (4.5) 0.00
  Change -2.6 (1.0) 0.01 -3.5 (1.3) 0.01
Vitamin E Level -1.0 (0.4) 0.01 -2.0 (0.5) <0.01
  Change 0.07 (0.09) 0.38 0.2 (0.1) 0.13
  1. * Adjusted for age, sex, height, asbestos exposure and smoking history. Only results for linear trend are shown.