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Table 4 Relationships between plasma carotene concentrations and lung function levels and annual rate of change*

From: Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

  Quartiles FEV1 95%CI FVC 95%CI
Level at entry into program (ml) Q1 0   0  
  Q2 21.4 -3.2,46.1 0.06 -31.4,31.6
  Q3 47.8 19.1,76.4 30.6 -5.8,67.0
  Q4 67.3 38.0,96.6 59.5 22.6,96.5
Annual change (ml/year) Q1 0 0 0 0
  Q2 -1.1 -6.5,4.3 3.04 -3.8-9.9
  Q3 -6.0 -12.3,0.3 -6.6 -14.6-1.5
  Q4 -9.3 -16.0,-2.7 -8.3 -16.8-0.1
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, height, asbestos exposure and smoking history.
  2. Quartile 1: Carotene concentrations lower than 0.45 μmol/L; Quartile 2: concentrations more than 0.45 and less than 0.8 μmol/L; quartile 3: concentrations more than 0.8 and less than 1.3; and quartile 4: concentrations equal or greater than 1.3 μmol/L.