Skip to main content


From: Homocysteine and reactive oxygen species in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: The pleiotropic effects of folate supplementation

R Reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA). Decreasing modified LDL-cholesterol, i.e. oxidized, acetylated LDL-cholesterol. Decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL-cholesterol Improving endothelial cell dysfunction. Restoring the abnormal Lipoprotein fractions. Thus, decreasing the redox and oxidative stress to the arterial vessel wall and myocardium. Redox stress reduction.
A AngII inhibition or blockade: ACEi-prils. ARBS-sartans. Both inhibiting the effect of angiotensin-II locally as well as systemically. Affecting hemodynamic stress through their antihypertensive effect as well as the deleterious effects of angiotensin II on cells at the local level – injurious stimuli -decreasing the stimulus for O 2 production. Decreasing the A-FLIGHT toxicities. Plus the direct-indirect antioxidant effect within the arterial vessel wall and capillary.
Antioxidant effects.
Aspirin antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory effect.
Adrenergic (non-selective blockade) in addition to its blockade of Prorenin → Renin
Amlodipine with its calcium channel blocking antihypertensive effect, in addition to its direct antioxidant effects. Redox stress reduction.
A Aggressive control of diabetes to HbA1c of less than 7. (This usually requires combination therapy with the use of: Insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers (thiazolidinediones), biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and ultimately exogenous insulin.) [3638]
Decreasing modified LDL cholesterol, i.e. glycated – glycoxidated LDL cholesterol. Improving endothelial cell dysfunction. Also decreasing glucotoxicity and the oxidative – redox stress to the intima and pancreatic islet.
Aggressive control of blood pressure, which usually requires combination therapy, including thiazide diuretics to attain JNC 7 guidelines.
Aggressive control of Hcy with folic acid and its associated pleiotropic positive effect on re-coupling the eNOS reaction by restoring the activity of the BH4 cofactor to run the eNOS reaction and once again produce eNO, as well as, its direct antioxidant effects: BH4 and eNOS stabilization Redox stress reduction.
S Statins. Improving plaque stability (pleiotropic effects) independent of cholesterol lowering. Improving endothelial cell dysfunction. Plus, the direct – indirect antioxidant anti-inflammatory effects within the islet and the arterial vessel wall promoting stabilization of the unstable, vulnerable islet and the arterial vessel wall.
Style: Lifestyle modification: lose weight, exercise, and change eating habits. Stop Smoking Redox stress reduction