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Table 6 Studies of Carotenoids and Lung Cancer.

From: Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

Reference Study # Cases # Controls Outcomes Comment
[228] Hawaiian cohort 332 865 Dose-dependent inverse associations for dietary β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein; Subjects with highest intake of all 3 had the lowest risk Previous study showed variety of vegetables more protective than just foods rich in a particular carotenoid
[229] Washington county, Maryland residents 258 515 ↑Serum/plasma levels of cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin = ↓cancer (OR = 0.74, 0.83, 0.90, SS)  
[230] Case control, Spain 103 206, hospital No association for intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, or lutein.  
[231] Case control, Uruguay 541 540 ↑total carotenoids = ↓cancer (OR = 0.43, SS) Risk reduction for vit E and glutathione also seen.
[232] Finland cohort 138   ↑α-carotene = ↓cancer (OR = 0.61, SS); β-carotene inversely related but not SS. 90% of α-carotene from carrots
      ↑Fruits and ↑root vegetables = ↓cancer (OR = 0.58, 0.56, respectively, SS)
[233] Nurses' Health Study & Health Professionals Follow-Up Study 794   ↑α-carotene, lycopene, total carotenoids = ↓cancer (OR = 0.75, 0.80, 068 respectively, SS); Never smokers + ↑α-carotene = ↓cancer (OR = 0.37, SS) 4–8 year lag between diet assessment and date of diagnosis gave strongest correlations.
[234] Shanghai men's cohort 209 622 ↑serum β-cryptoxanthin = ↓cancer (OR quartiles = 1, 0.72, 0.42, 0.45, P-trend = 0.02); Smokers with above median level of total carotenoids had a SS 37% reduction in cancer risk Study population had ~50% lower mean levels of serum carotenoids compared to US whites.
[235] Canadian National Breast Screening Study 155 5,631 Non-significant inverse trend in risk for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin β-cryptoxanthin most from citrus, red peppers
[236] Japan Collaborative Cohort Study 147 311 ↑α-carotene, β-carotene, canthaxanthin, total carotenoids = ↓risk (OR = 0.35, 0.21, 0.37, 0.27 respectively, SS); lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin reduce lung cancer risk, but not significantly  
[237] Singapore Chinese Health Study 482   ↑dietary β-cryptoxanthin = ↓cancer risk (OR = 0.73, 0.63 for smokers, SS) No significant associations of other carotenoids with lung cancer
[238] Pooled analysis of 7 cohorts in USA and Europe 3,155   ↑ dietary β-cryptoxanthin = ↓lung cancer (OR = 0.76, SS) Other dietary carotenoids not significantly related to lung cancer.
  1. SS = statistically significant difference between comparison groups.