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Table 5 Prospective Studies of Vitamin D and Cancer.

From: Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

Reference Study Vit D measure # Cases # Controls Outcomes Comment
[219] 19-year cohort study of 1,954 men Diet history    ↑vit D + calcium = ↓colorectal cancer (rates for lowest to highest intakes were 38.9, 24,5, 22,5 and 14.3/1000 population Significant effect even after adjustments for confounding factors; 2.7 fold reduction.
[220] Washington county, Maryland cohort Serum 25(OH)D 34 67 matched ↑serum vit D = ↓colon cancer. Relative risk was 0.25 for 3rd quintile and 0.20 for 4th quintile. 4–5 fold reduction
[221] Physicians' Health Study Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2 232 414 No relation between vitamin D metabolite levels and prostate cancer  
[222] Nurses' Health Study Dietary and supplement intake    Colon cancer RR = 0.42 (SS) for total vitamin D, comparing top and bottom quintiles Calcium not related to colon cancer risks; 2.4 fold reduction
[223] Finnish clinical cohort Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2 146 292 ↑serum 25(OH)D = ↓risk of rectal cancer, RR by quartile = 1.00, 0.93, 0.77, 0.37, P trend = 0.06. Serum 25(OH)D 12% lower in cases than in controls (12.2 vs 13.8 ng/l, P = 0.01; 2.7-fold reduction
[224] NHANES I Follow-up Study Sunlight and diet 190 women Cohort matched Risk reductions for breast cancer for women in regions with high solar radiation (RR 0.35 – 0.75).  
[225] Helsinki Heart Study Serum 25(OH)D 149 596 ↑serum 25(OH)D = ↓prostate cancer. 1.7 fold greater risk for below median level compared to above median level. Young men (<52 years old) with low 25(OH)D had much higher risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 6.3)
[226] Randomized controlled trial for colon adenoma recurrence Serum 25(OH)D & 1,25(OH)D2, and supplementary calcium 803 subjects total   Above medium 25(OH)D and supplemental calcium reduced adenoma recurrence (RR = 0.71) Calcium and vitamin D appeared to work together to reduce colon cancer risk.
[227] Norway, Finland, Sweden cohort of men Serum 25(OH)D 622 1,451 ≤ 19 nmol/l and ≥ 80 nmol/l of 25(OH)D at higher risk of prostate cancer. (40–60 nmol/l had lowest risk).