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Table 3 Folate and Colon / Rectal Cancer.

From: Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

Reference Study # Cases # Controls Outcomes Comment
[195] Case / control USA 35 64 Folate supplementation = 62% lower incidence of neoplasia result not SS
[196] Case / control NY state 800 Matched neighbor-hood controls ↑Folate = ↓rectal cancer, OR = 0.5 men, OR = 0.31, women Folate no effect for colon cancer SS
[197] Case / control Majorca, Spain 286 498 Colon cancer related to total calories, cholesterol, animal protein, low fiber, low folic acid .
[198] Case / Control Wash. state 424 414 ↑Alcohol = ↑cancer risk; ↑fiber = ↓risk; no relation to folate intake 2.5X risk for 30 g/day alcohol
[199] Nurses' Health Study & Health Professionals Follow-up Study 564 women, 331 men   ↑folate = ↓risk of colorectal adenoma: ORwomen = 0.66, ORmen = 0.63  
[200] Case / Control, Italy 1,326 2,024 hospital controls Protective trends for β-carotene, ascorbic acid, vit E, and folate (OR = 0.32, 0.40, 0.60, 0.52, respectively) Similar for colon and rectal cancer
[201] US male health professional cohort 205   ↑Alcohol = ↑colon cancer (OR = 2.07 for ≥ 2 drinks/day; folate weakly protective; ↑Alcohol + ↓folate = ↑colon cancer risk (OR = 3.30)  
[202] α-tocopherol, β-carotene study cohort of smokers 144 276 ↑dietary folate = ↓colon cancer (OR = 1.0, 0.40, 0.34, 0.51, P-trend = 0.15); alcohol intake increased risk
[203] Case control, population based    Composite dietary profile (alcohol intake, methionine, folate, vit B12, B6) trend of increasing risk for high risk group Marginal SS
[204] Nurses' Health Study 442   ↑folate intake = ↓colon cancer (OR = 0.69); long-term use of multi-vitamins beneficial Folate intake includes multi-vitamins
[205] NYU Women's Health Study 105 523 ↑folate = ↓colorectal cancer risk (OR = 0.52, P-trend = 0.04 Alcohol increased risk
[206] NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study    ↑folate = ↓colon cancer (ORmen = 0.40, P-trend = 0.03; ↑alcohol, ↓folate = ↑colon cancer (ORmen = 2.67 Results not stat. signif in women
[207] Nurses' Health Study 535   ↑folate intake = ↓colon cancer in women with family history (OR = 0.48) Folate effect greater in women with family history
[208] Canadian National Breast Screening Study 295 5,334 ↑folate = ↓colorectal cancer (OR = 0.6, P-trend = 0.25 Results not SS
[209] Prospective cohort in The Netherlands 1,171   Rectal: OR, men 0.66, women no trend Trends SS only in men
[210] Case / Control Italy 1,953 4,154 ↑folate = ↓colorectal cancer (OR = 0.72) Population drinks alcohol regularly
[211] Iowa Women's health Study 721   ↑folate + (↑B12 or ↑B6) = ↓colon cancer (OR = 0.59, 0.65, respectively Nutrients not independent, alcohol increases risk
[212] Case / Control NC state 613 996 ↑β-carotene, vit C, calcium = 40–60 % ↓risk colon cancer in whites; in African Americans ↑ vit C and E = 50–70% ↓risk colon cancer; no relation to folate to cancer risk Colon cancer rates higher in Aftrican Americans in NC; due to less UV light absorption with dark skin?
[213] Wheat Bran Fiber trial, test for recurrence of adenoma polyps 1,014 men and women   ↑homocysteine = ↑risk (OR = 0.69); ↑plasma folate = ↓risk (OR = 0.66) ↑folate or B6 intake (diet + supplements) = ↓risk (OR = 0.61 SS; cut-off for highest quartile is 664 μg/day (way above RDA)
  1. SS = statistically significant