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Table 3 Effect of smoking on bacterial growth on throat swab culture

From: Effect of smoking on vitamin A, vitamin E, and other trace elements in patients with cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Organism Control (Non-smoker) n = 20 Smoker
   Grade I 10–15 sticks/d n = 20 Grade II 16–20 sticks/d n = 30 Grade III 21+ sticks/d n = 30
Streptococcus β hemolytica 2.8 70.5 71.4 72.5
Aerobacter aerogenes 12.2 25.4 26.7 27.0
No growth 85.0 4.1 1.9 1.0
  1. Values are percentages. P < .001 for all values of smokers compared with the control.