Skip to main content

Table 2 Effect of smoking on serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and other trace elements

From: Effect of smoking on vitamin A, vitamin E, and other trace elements in patients with cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Trace element (μmol/L) Control (Non-smoker) n = 20 Smoker
   Grade I 10–15 sticks/d n = 20 Grade II 16–20 sticks/d n = 30 Grade III 21+ sticks/d n = 30
Retinol .72 ± .06 .66 ± .12 .45 ± .09* .28 ± .07*
Alpha-tocopherol 13.5 ± 1.6 10.0 ± .7** 8.6 ± 1.9*** 7.9 ± 1.2***
Copper .44 ± .25 .46 ± .16 .61 ± .19* .62 ± .27*
Selenium .013 ± .001 .004 ± .001* .003 ± .001* .003 ± .001*
Zinc .46 ± .23 .46 ± .15 .46 ± .20 .42 ± .15*
  1. Values are mean ± SD. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001 compared with the control.