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Table 1 Baseline study characteristics

From: Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus

Author, year, N Inclusion criteria Follow up Product evaluated Dose and frequency Age (years), males (%) (mean ± SD) Duration of DM (years) (mean ± SD) Baseline A1C (%), FBG (mg/dL) (mean ± SD) Baseline weight (kg), BMI (kg/m 2 ) (mean ± SD)
Chen, 2013, N = 66 30-75YO, T2DM ≥4 months, stable on OHA x3 months, FBG 140-250 mg/dL, A1C 7.5-12%, BMI 20-35 kg/m2 16 weeks Chromium chloride (n = 38) 200 mcg, BID 62 ± 53, 58 NR 8.4 ± 8.6, 171 ± 314 NR, 28 ± 26
Placebo (n = 28) --- 54 ± 45, 75 NR 8.5 ± 6.88, 191 ± 389 NR, 26 ± 21
Jain, 2012, N = 50 T2DM, 30-55YO, signed consent, willingness to participate, not pregnant 3 months Chromium picolinate (n = 25) 400 mcg, unspecified 51 ± 10, 28 NR 7.5 ± 1.6, 129 ± 44 104 ± 32, 37 ± 11
Placebo (n = 25) --- 49 ± 10, 8 NR 7.84 ± 1.7, 142 ± 62 100 ± 28, 38 ± 9
Król, 2011, N = 40 T2DM, not pregnant or breastfeeding, without vitamin-mineral supplementation in the last 3 months 8 weeks Brewer’s yeast (n = 20) 100 mcg, 2 tablets QAM, 2 tablets in the afternoon, 1 tablet QPM 55 ± 9 years old for N = 40, 55 for N = 50 11.5 ± 7.8 for N = 40 8.09 ± 2.17, 194 ± 61 NR, 35 ± 9
Placebo (n = 20) --- 55 ± 9 years old for N = 40, 55 for N = 50 11.5 ± 7.8 for N = 40 7.95 ± 80, 167 ± 47 NR, 36 ± 10
Sharma, 2011, N = 40 Not specified, however, authors noted that patients who enrolled had T2DM 3 months Brewer’s yeast (n = 20) 42 mcg, 3 capsules TID 35-67 years old for N = 40, NR NR 9.5 ± 1.2, 198 ± 30 NR, 25 ± 9
Placebo (n = 20) --- 35-67 years old for N = 40, NR NR 9.30 ± 0.98, 226 ± 82 NR, 26 ± 4
Lai, 2008, N = 20 <56YO, DM × 5 years, FBG > 153 mg/dL, A1C > 8.5% 6 months Chromium yeast (n = 10) 1,000 mcg, unspecified 53 ± 2, 40 NR 10.2 ± 0.5, 225 ± 9 NR, 26 ± 0.9
Placebo (n = 10) --- 51 ± 2, 50 NR 10.1 ± 0.4, 221 ± 17 NR, 26 ± 0.8
Kleefstra, 2007, N = 57 A1C 7–8.5%, only on OHG, no change to TX in 3 months, CrCl >50 mL/min, ALT <90 units/L 6 months Chromium yeast (n = 29) 100 mcg, 2 tablets BID 68 ± 8, 62 6 6.9 ± 0.67, 157 ± 41 88 ± 20, 30 ± 6
Placebo (n = 28) --- 66 ± 9, 61 4.5 7.01 ± 0.50, 144 ± 32.4 87 ± 17, 30 ± 6
Kleefstra, 2006, N = 46 <75YO, A1C >8%, daily insulin ≥50 units, CrCl >50 mL/min 6 months Chromium picolinate (n = 14) 250 mcg, BID 60 ± 9, 29 13 ± 5 9.43 ± 1.09, NR NR, 35 ± 7
Chromium picolinate (n = 15) 500 mcg, BID 59 ± 6, 33 11 ± 6 9.67 ± 0.91, NR NR, 33 ± 4
Placebo (n = 17) --- 62 ± 8, 59 18 ± 8 9.41 ± 1.01, NR NR, 34 ± 4
Racek, 2006, N = 36 >18YO, T2DM, agreement with study protocol 12 weeks Chromium enriched yeast (n = 19) 100 mcg, 2 tablets BID 60.8 [37–80], 37 3 7.18 ± 1.52, 148 ± 46 NR, 34 ± 6
Placebo (n = 17) --- 62 [47–77], 12 6 6.94 ± 1.68, 141 ± 43 NR, 35 ± 9
Vrtovec, 2005, N = 60 T2DM, without renal/hepatic dysfunction, without CAD/CVD 3 months Chromium picolinate (n = 30) 1,000 mcg, unspecified NR, NR NR 6.9 ± 1, 160 ± 36 NR, 30 ± 4
Placebo (n = 30) --- NR, NR NR 7.0 ± 1.5, 164 ± 43 NR, 31 ± 5
Ghosh, 2002, N = 100 T2DM, glycemic control ×3 months, not pregnant, no allergies to chromium picolinate, no multi-mineral supplementation 12 weeks Chromium picolinate (n = 50) 200 mcg, BID NR, NR NR 7.2 ± 2.5, 124 ± 45 NR, NR
Placebo (n = 50) --- NR, NR NR 7.2 ± 1.9, 122 ± 49 NR, NR
Bahijiri, 2000, N = 141 T2DM, negative history of pituitary, thyroid, kidney, or liver disease, no digestive problems, no vitamin supplements 8 months Chromium chloride (n = 67) 200 mcg, unspecified 36-68 years old for N = 141, 38 for N = 141 NR NR, NR NR, 31 ± 8
Brewer’s yeast (n = 74) 23.2 mcg, unspecified     
Placebo (n = 69) ---     
Anderson, 1997, N = 155 Free of other disease, T2DM, 25-65YO, FBG between 130 mg/dL – 230 mg/dL, 2HOGTT between 170 mg/dL – 300 mg/dL, A1C between 8% – 12% 4 months Chromium picolinate (n = 53) 100 mcg, BID 56 ± 1, NR 8 ± 1 9.4 ± 2.18, 184 ± 39 69 ± 2, 25 ± 0.5
Chromium picolinate (n = 52) 500 mcg, BID 55 ± 1, NR 5 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 2.16, 176 ± 39 68 ± 1, 25 ± 0.4
Placebo (n = 50) --- 56 ± 1, NR 5 ± 0.7 9.1 ± 2.12, 176 ± 38 69 ± 1, 25 ± 0.5
Abraham, 1992, N = 25 Authors did not clearly specify, however, they did note that patients with T2DM were enrolled and had established atherosclerotic disease 16 months Chromium chloride (n = 13) 250 mcg, unspecified NR, NR NR NR, 175 ± 36 NR, NR
Placebo (n = 12) --- NR, NR NR NR, 176 ± 42 NR, NR
Hunt, 1985, N = 39 T2DM, BG >140 mg/dL, A1C >8% 90 days Brewer’s yeast (n = 22) 68 mcg/day, BID 62 ± 16 years old for N = 39, 73 for N = 79 NR 11.1, 204 123 ± 22 for N = 39, NR
Placebo – Torula yeast (n = 17) --- 62 ± 16 years old for N = 39, 73 for N = 9 NR 11, 186 123 ± 22 for N = 39, NR
  1. Abbreviations: T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, OHA oral hyperglycemic agent, FBG fasting blood glucose, BID twice daily, TID three times daily, QAM daily in the morning, QPM daily in the evening, DM diabetes mellitus, TX treatment, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cardiovascular disease.