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Table 1 Anthropometric characteristics and levels of obesity-related biomarkers in adolescents participating in the HELENA-CSS

From: Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

  Total Males Females
Total participants (n) 1804 855 949
Age (y) (mean (range)) 14.7 (12.5-17.4) 14.8 (12.5-17.4) 14.7 (12.5-17.4)
 12.5-14.9 y (n) 1032 481 551
 15.0-17.5 y (n) 772 374 398
Tanner Stage (n = 1752) n (%)
 Tanner 1 9 (0.514) 9 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
 Tanner 2-4 1294 (73.9) 614 (74.2) 680 (73.5)
 Tanner 5 449 (25.6) 204 (24.7) 245 (26.5)
Weight status (n = 1804)μ    
 Underweight 142 (7.9) 58 (6.8) 84 (8.9)
 Normal weight 1383 (76.7) 649 (75.9) 734 (77.3)
 Overweight 222 (12.3) 114 (13.3) 108 (11.4)
 Obesity 57 (3.2) 34 (4.0) 23 (2.4)
  Mean (SD)
Anthropometry    
 BMI z-score (n = 1804) 0.270 (1.1) 0.358 (1.1) 0.190 (1.0)
 BF% (n = 1764) 22.0 (8.6) 18.4 (9.1) 25.1 (6.8)
Biomarkers    
 TC (mg/dL) (n = 552) 159.1 (27) 151.9 (24.9) 165.8 (27.1)
 TG (mg/dL) (n = 552) 67.6 (31.1) 64.5 (31.5) 70.5 (30.5)
 LDL-C (mg/dL) (n = 552) 92.6 (24.2) 89.0 (23.2) 96.0 (24.7)
 VLDL-C (mg/dL) (n = 552) 13.5 (6.2) 12.9 (6.3) 14.1 (6.1)
 HDL-C (mg/dL) (n = 552) 55.6 (10.3) 53.3 (9.3) 57.8 (10.7)
 CRP (mg/L) (n = 524) 1.2 (4.0) 1.5 (5.5) 0.841 (1.3)
 Glucose (mg/dL) (n = 552) 90.1 (7.0) 91.9 (7.2) 88.5 (6.4)
 Insulin (μlU/mL) (n = 545) 9.5 (6.0) 9.0 (6.6) 10.0 (6.6)
 Leptin (ng/mL) (n = 518) 18.5 (21.9) 8.1 (12.9) 27.5 (24.1)
  1. SD, standard deviation; BMI, body mass index; BF%, body fat percentage; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; LDL, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol; VLDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol; CRP, c-reactive protein.
  2. μBMI categories is classified based on the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, underweight: <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight: 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, obesity: ≥30.0 kg/m2.