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Table 1 Baseline and demographic characteristics

From: Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

Clinical characteristics High-flavanol chocolate (n = 33) Low-flavanol chocolate (n = 41)
MED (J/cm 2 ) 0.56 ± 0.14 0.61 ± 0.17
Skin type ˦ I 15 (45.5) 16 (39.0)
II 18 (54.5) 25 (61.0)
Season at week 12 ˦   
Before April 15 10 (30.3) 17 (41.5)
After April 15 23 (69.7) 24 (58.5)
Overall skin elasticity (mm)   
Arm 0.76 ± 0.08 0.76 ± 0.09
Temple 0.54 ± 0.11 0.55 ± 0.10
Skin hydration (units ** )   
Arm 33.34 ± 7.27 33.05 ± 6.76
Temple 41.00 ± 13.02 42.39 ± 10.71
Plasma polyphenol concentrations   
Epicatechins (ng/ml) 0.12 ± 0.48 0.11 ± 0.43
Catechins (ng/ml) 0.20 ± 0.67 0.17 ± 0.64
Dietary polyphenol consumption*   
Epicatechins (mg/day) 10.50 ± 7.54 10.65 ± 7.00
Catechins (mg/day) 11.94 ± 7.91 14.35 ± 9.28
Age (years) 39.7 ± 14.2 39.3 ± 12.0
20 to 35˦ 15 (45.5) 19 (46.3)
36 to 49˦ 8 (24.2) 12 (29.3)
50 to 65˦ 10 (30.3) 10 (24.4)
Sun exposure habits ˦   
UV exposure (>30 minutes daily):   
Weekdays 23 (69.7) 30 (73.2)
Weekend days 31 (93.9) 39 (95.1)
Painful sunburn 23 (69.7) 28 (68.3)
Educational attainment ˦   
University degree 24 (72.7) 36 (87.8)
Some university or college education 9 (27.3) 5 (12.2)
Anthropometric measures   
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 2.2 24.4 ± 3.6
  1. **Arbitrary Corneometer® units. Values represent means ± SD.
  2. *Polyphenol consumption was calculated by FFQ.
  3. ˦Values represent number and percentage.