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Table 2 Dietary sources of protocatechuic acid

From: Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system

Source Content* References
Açai pulp 11.7 μmol/L [72]
Apple 31 μmol/Kg [56]
Avocado 2.4 μmol/Kg [73]
Beer 3 μmol/L [57]
Bilberries 111 μmol/Kg [58]
Bitter melon, ripe 970 μmol/Kg [59]
Blackberries 127 μmol/Kg [58]
Blueberries, V. arctostaphylos 9.5 μmol/kg [60]
Buckwheat, whole grain 600 μmol/Kg [62]
Cauliflower, raw 29 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Chicory 1,090-1,415 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Currants, black 78 μmol/Kg [58]
357 μmol/Kg [56]
Dates, dried 320 μmol/kg Phenol-Explorer
Eggplant, purple, raw 48 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Garlic 23 μmol/Kg [74]
Gooseberry 405 μmol/Kg [56]
Grapes, white 22 μmol/Kg [56]
Honeysuckle, blueberried 140 μmol/Kg [58]
Juneberries, European 159 μmol/Kg [58]
Kiwi juice 39 μmol/L [65]
Lentils, dried, dehulled 4.5 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Lentils, dried with hulls 9 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Lingonberries 195 μmol/Kg [75]
Mango pulp 2.5 μmol/Kg [73]
Mangosteen pulp 91 μmol/Kg [76]
Medlar, ripe 6 μmol/Kg [77]
Mulberries, black 119 μmol/Kg [58]
Oil, Açai – phenol rich 4 μmol/mL [72]
Oil, olive – virgin 3-11.5 μmol/Kg [78]
Olive, black, raw 390 μmol/kg Phenol-Explorer
Olive, green, raw 43 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Onion, red 130 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
50 μmol/Kg [74]
Onion, white 65 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
1.2 μmol/Kg [74]
Pear 3 μmol/Kg [56]
Raspberry 270 μmol/Kg [56]
Shallot 65 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Sorghum 165 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Strawberry 112 μmol/Kg [56]
Star anise 2,090 μmol/Kg Phenol-Explorer
Wine, red 0.3-0.8 μmol/L [79]
Wine, white 0.1-0.5 μmol/L [79]
  1. *Values given are for the free phenolic as well as the phenolic derived from either esters or glycosides. All published values converted to μmoles per unit volume or per Kg fresh fruit (based upon an 85% water content) or per Kg grain.
  2. References for Phenol-Explorer are: [8082].