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Table 2 Fetal and neonatal outcome

From: Malnutrition in pregnancy following bariatric surgery: three clinical cases of fetal neural defects

  CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3
FETAL OUTCOME    
Gestational age at diagnosis (weeks + days) 22 + 0 20 + 5 20 + 3
Ultrasound findings    
Indirect signs    
Deformation of frontal cranial bones (lemon sign) Present Present Absent
Abnormal curvature of cerebellum (banana sign) Present Present Absent
Ventricle dilatation (site; grade) Bilateral; Moderate Bilateral; Moderate Absent
Hypoplastic posterior cranial fossa Present Present Absent
Direct signs    
Spinal deformation (level of lesion) Lumbar L1-L5 Thoracic Lumbar (T9-S1) Absent
Myelomeningocele (dimension mm) Present (27x28) Present (54x37) Absent
Other associated malformations Sacral Agenesia Hemivertebrae T5 Absent
Magnetic resonance imaging    
Findings Moderate bilateral ventriculomegaly (Arnold Chiari Type II); spina bifida extending from T1-T5 Moderate bilateral ventriculomegaly (Arnold Chiari Type I); spina bifida extending from T9-S1 Not Performed
NEONATAL OUTCOME    
Sex F F M
Gestational age at birth (weeks; days) 38 38 34 + 6
Mode of delivery Elective Caesarean Section Elective Caesarean Section Vaginal
Apgar score    
1 minute 6 8 5
5 minutes 7 9 7
Weight at birth (gr) 2700 3090 2287
Surgery Closure MMC + DVP Closure MMC + DVP -
  1. MMC = myelomeningocele; DVP = drainage ventriculo-peritoneal.