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Table 4 Relative risks (95% confidence interval) a for early onset (early AOM) or late onset (late AOM) b of menarche according to levels of total soy and soy foods consumption

From: Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

  Level of Consumptionc
  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Total soy intake  
Early AOM 1.00 Ref 1.85 (1.01, 3.40)d 1.62 (0.80, 3.26) 1.85 (0.91, 3.75)
Late AOM 1.00 Ref 1.17 (0.53, 2.60) 0.86 (0.32, 2.30) 0.83 (0.30, 2.30)
Meat alternatives  
Early AOM 1.00 Ref 1.45 (0.79, 2.66) 1.08 (0.53, 2.19) 1.54 (0.77, 3.08)
Late AOM 1.00 Ref 1.22 (0.56, 2.65) 0.81 (0.32, 2.06) 0.96 (0.36, 2.57)
  Non-consumers Low-moderate High
Traditional soy  
Early AOM 1.00 Ref 1.30 (0.81, 2.08) 1.39 (0.81, 2.38)
Late AOM 1.00 Ref 1.30 (0.70, 2.41) 1.05 (0.50, 2.23)
Soy beverages    
Early AOM 1.00 Ref 1.41 (0.88, 2.28) 1.15 (0.66, 2.02)
Late AOM 1.00 Ref 0.95 (0.52, 1.74) 0.70 (0.31, 1.57)
  1. aModified Poisson regression model adjusted for total food intake, age, site, type of school, mother’s and father’s education, mother’s and father’s ethnicity, meat intake, and BMI.
  2. bEarly AOM defined as AOM < 12.0 years and late AOM as AOM ≥ 14.0 years.
  3. cLevels of consumption for total soy and meat alternatives are in quartiles while that for tofu/traditional soy and soy beverages are categorized as non-consumers (“0” soy consumption), low-to-moderate consumers (≤75th percentile excluding non-consumers) and high consumers (>75th percentile) due to more skewed distributions.
  4. dp = .047.
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