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Table 3 Comparison of mean crude energy intakes and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes estimated by the 16-day DR, and the DHQ administered in each season among 92 women

From: Effect of seasonality on the estimated mean value of nutrients and ranking ability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire

  Women (n = 92)
DR IQR Fall* Winter* Spring* Summer*
Energy, kJ/day 7722 7071-8589 7854 7682 6621*** 7028**
Protein, % energy 15.1 14.0-16.4 14.0*** 13.9*** 14.4* 13.9***
Fat, % energy 27.3 25.0-30.6 27.5 26.7 30.3*** 29.0*
Saturated fat, % energy 7.71 6.68-8.84 7.43 7.37* 8.50*** 8.30*
Monounsaturated fat, % energy 9.50 8.33-11.0 9.52 9.23 10.8*** 10.3**
Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 6.23 5.76-6.70 6.42 6.22 7.03*** 6.69*
n-3 Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 1.20 1.04-1.37 1.26 1.18 1.41*** 1.35***
n-6 Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 5.00 4.56-5.55 5.17 5.06 5.66*** 5.36*
Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fat, % energy 0.44 0.32-0.55 0.38** 0.35*** 0.44 0.43
Eicosapentaenoic acid, % energy 0.15 0.11-0.18 0.13 0.12*** 0.15 0.15
Docosahexaenoic acid, % energy 0.25 0.19-0.31 0.22** 0.20*** 0.25 0.24
α-Linolenic acid, % energy 0.70 0.62-0.77 0.82*** 0.79*** 0.90*** 0.87***
Cholesterol, mg/10 MJ 432 374-497 386** 370*** 448 430
Carbohydrate, % energy 55.1 51.7-58.7 55.5 56.3* 46.1*** 46.0***
Total dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 18.8 16.1-22.3 17.6** 17.0*** 15.2*** 14.7***
Soluble dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 4.15 3.44-4.83 4.20 4.06 3.67*** 3.81**
Insoluble dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 13.7 11.8-16.0 12.7*** 12.3*** 10.7*** 10.2***
Alcohol, % energy 0.78 0.14-1.62 0.62* 0.49*** 2.53*** 2.90***
Retinol, μg/10 MJ 331 224-423 307 282* 392* 440***
Vitamin A 741 574-857 717 662* 814 844*
(retinol equivalent), μg/10 MJ
α-Carotene, μg/10 MJ 480 340-661 437 425 386** 353***
β-Carotene, μg/10 MJ 3764 2763-5368 3583 3439 3833 3781
β-Carotene equivalent§, μg/10 MJ 4330 3159-6029 4173 3957 4251 4118
Cryptoxanthin, μg/10 MJ 355 225-661 506*** 374 223*** 147***
α-Tocopherol, mg/10 MJ 9.57 8.66-10.5 9.79 9.61 11.1*** 11.0***
Vitamin K, μg/10 MJ 295 244-362 330** 335** 369*** 302
Thiamin, mg/10 MJ 1.17 1.06-1.26 1.05*** 1.03*** 1.08* 1.09*
Riboflavin, mg/10 MJ 1.71 1.50-1.91 1.73 1.63* 2.08*** 2.09***
Niacin, mg/10 MJ 21.4 19.2-24.0 20.2** 19.2*** 25.3*** 25.7***
Vitamin B6, mg/10 MJ 1.57 1.34-1.77 1.45*** 1.38*** 1.79*** 1.84***
Vitamin B12, μg/10 MJ 9.55 7.47-12.1 9.03 8.92 10.8** 10.5*
Folate, μg/10 MJ 452 368-552 392*** 377*** 455 427*
Pantothenic acid, mg/10 MJ 7.78 7.16-8.39 7.76 7.57 8.33*** 8.39***
Vitamin C, mg/10 MJ 139 119-185 148 122*** 134 131
Sodium, mg/10 MJ 5320 4767-6027 5364 5043* 5120 5096
Potassium, mg/10 MJ 3408 2918-3849 3146*** 2954*** 3411 3544*
Calcium, mg/10 MJ 729 615-876 701 677** 787** 760
Magnesium, mg/10 MJ 350 306-394 325*** 321*** 372*** 372***
Phosphorus, mg/10 MJ 1383 1263-1521 1315** 1291*** 1450** 1438*
Iron, mg/10 MJ 10.5 9.15-12.1 9.05*** 8.89*** 9.12*** 8.58***
Zinc, mg/10 MJ 10.4 9.80-11.2 10.0*** 10.3 9.41*** 9.15***
Copper, mg/10 MJ 1.52 1.37-1.68 1.44*** 1.47* 1.28*** 1.26***
Manganese, mg/10 MJ 4.61 3.89-5.59 5.17*** 4.85* 4.63 4.46
  1. Abbreviations: DR = semi-weighed 16-day dietary records; DHQ = self-administered diet history questionnaire; IQR = interquartile range.
  2. All variables were log-transformed before analysis. Means were back-transformed.
  3. *The periods in which the DHQs were administered in each season were as follows: Fall = November or December 2002, Winter = February 2003, Spring = May 2003, Summer = August or September 2003.
  4. Sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid.
  5. Sum of retinol, β-carotene/12, α-carotene/24, and cryptoxanthin/24.
  6. §Sum of β-carotene, α-carotene/2, and cryptoxanthin/2.
  7. Significant difference from the DR: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (paired t-test).