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Table 5 Quantities of metabolites excreted in urine collected during 0 to 12 hours and during 12–24 hours following consumption of test meals 1

From: Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals

  Control Walnut
  0–12 h urine 12-24 h urine 0-12 h urine 12-24 h urine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, mM 0.412 ± 0.353a 0.281 ± 0.182b* 0.375 ±197 0.401 ± 210
4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, mM 52.30 ± 35.68 49.73 ± 36.54 48.90 ± 25.37 72.44 ± 36.15
4-Methoxyphenylacetic acid, mM 6.45 ± 4.34 5.18 ± 2.86 4.59 ± 1.82a 7.71 ± 1.70b*
Urolithin A, μM 8.45 ± 0.88a 12.82 ± 28.03a 20.44 ± 32.18b* 100.59 ± 114.86b*
  1. 1All values are means ± SD. Values in the same measure with different superscript letters a or b are significantly different (Student’s t test): *P < 0.05.