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Table 2 Anthropometric and biochemical variables in adults with MetS

From: A decline in inflammation is associated with less depressive symptoms after a dietary intervention in metabolic syndrome patients: a longitudinal study

   Pvalue
Variables Baseline 2 months 6 months Time Diet TimexDiet
 Weight, kg 102.8 ± 2.2a 95.4 ± 2.1b 94.4 ± 2.2b < 0.001 0.834 0.666
 BMI, kg/m 2 36.1 ± 0.6a 33.5 ± 0.5b 33.2 ± 0.6b < 0.001 0.997 0.474
 WC, cm 114.2 ± 1.6a 106.8 ± 1.5b 105.7 ± 1.6b < 0.001 0.999 0.102
DXA measurements       
 Fat mass, kg 42.9 ± 1.2a 37.5 ± 1.2b 36.3 ± 1.2c < 0.0011 0.469 0.432
 Muscle mass, kg 56.6 ± 1.5a 54.5 ± 1.4b 54.8 ± 1.5b < 0.001 0.694 0.239
Biochemical variables       
 Cholesterol, mg/dL 219 ± 5a 197 ± 5b 219 ± 5a < 0.001 0.568 0.751
 Glucose, mg/dL 128 ± 5a 111 ± 3b 116 ± 4b 0.0011 0.786 0.377
 TG, mg/dL 195 ± 13a 146 ± 10b 154 ± 12b < 0.0011 0.730 0.955
 FFA, mmol/L 0.56 ± 0.21a 0.52 ± 0.24a,b 0.47 ± 0.20b 0.016 0.122 0.461
 CRP, mg/L 4.3 ± 0.7 a 3.1 ± 0.4a,b 2.5 ± 0.4b 0.0051 0.597 0.183
 HOMA index, mM/L 4.9 ± 0.4a 2.8 ± 0.3b 3.0 ± 0.4b < 0.001 0.956 0.288
 Leptin, ng/mL 21.5 ± 2.1a 14.5 ± 1.5c 17.2 ± 1.9b < 0.001 0.816 0.837
 Insulin, μU/mL 15.4 ± 1.1a 9.7 ± 0.9b 9.6 ± 1.0b < 0.0011 0.964 0.634
BDI questionnaire 7.6 ± 0.8a 4.4 ± 0.6b 3.8 ± 0.7c < 0.001 0.777 0.798
Activity level2 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 0.154 0.697 0.184
  1. Values are mean ± SEM n = 57-60. Effects of time, diet (control diet vs RESMENA diet) and time-diet interactions were analysed with repeated-measures ANOVA or Friedman test. Values in a row with different superscript letters (a, b, c) are significantly different, P < 0.05 by Bonferroni post hoc test, being a > b > c. Abbreviations: BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; FFA, free fatty acids; MetS, Metabolic Syndrome; TG, triglycerides; WC, waist circumference.
  2. 1 P-value based on non-parametric Friedman test compared the three time points of the study.
  3. 2Average daily exercise calculated by twenty-four physical activity questionnaire.