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Table 2 Pooled estimates of effect size (95% confidence intervals) expressed as weighted relative risk for adverse events and side-effects of ginger versus control group (Placebo, Vitamin B 6 , Dimenhydrinate)

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting

Outcome Number of studies RR 95% CI Heterogeneity  
Chi2 I2(%)
Ginger versus placebo
#Allergic reaction [30] 1 3.00 0.12 to 72.20   
#Dehydration [30] 1 3.00 0.12 to 72.20   
#Spontaneous abortions [29, 30] 2 3.14 0.65 to 15.11 0.00 0
Abdominal discomfort [29] 1 3.27 0.14 to 77.57   
Diarrhea [29] 1 3.27 0.14 to 77.57   
Drowsiness [29] 1 2.82 0.12 to 66.62   
Headache [29] 1 1.31 0.44 to 3.89   
Heartburn[19, 29, 30] 3 5.03 0.89 to 28.61 0.35 0
Worsening of symptoms requiring pharmaceutical treatment [30] 1 0.33 0.01 to 8.02   
Ginger versus vitamin B 6
#Arrhythmia [20] 1 0.51 0.05 to 5.46   
#Spontaneous abortions [21, 27] 2 0.49 0.17 to 1.42 1.67 40
Belching [27] 1 27.18 1.63 to 453.06*   
Burning sensation after capsule ingestion [27] 1 1.01 0.21 to 4.91   
Drowsiness [20, 28] 2 0.75 0.48 to 1.19 0.18 0
Dry retching [27] 1 0.93 0.76 to 1.15   
Heartburn [20, 28] 2 2.35 0.93 to 5.93 1.03 3
Vomiting [27] 1 1.51 0.26 to 8.91   
Ginger versus Dimenhydrinate
Drowsiness [26] 1 0.08 0.03 to 0.18**   
Heartburn [26] 1 1.44 0.65 to 3.20   
  1. #Major adverse events (serious complications, possibly detrimental to the mother or fetus) (authors’ judgement); rest considered minor (discomfort, but manageable side effects) - sorted alphabetically, first major then minor events.
  2. *Indicates significant finding: Ginger significantly increased the risk of belching compared to vitamin B6.
  3. **Indicates significant finding: Dimenhydrinate significantly increased the risk of drowsiness compared to ginger.
  4. RR, Relative risk; CI, confidence interval.